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Max Online: 1054 @ 07/29/08 07:31 AM
#1368272 - 12/14/07 07:43 AM
[Re: Big Stinky]
Loc: Synthetic farm
More info about General Hydroponics
DWC is prone to Root Rot,
always due to low DO*Altitude
play an important role
in how much DO a solution can carry.
If you reduce your nute loads,
your solution can carry more DO.
If you live in Denver,
you may have a problem indoor growing
with any temps above 65ºf
If you check out Roseypanties experiment,
you will see he had much better result
using a reduced nute load.
There were two positive effects on the plants,
that were grown using the reduced nute load.
The first good thing that happened was,
his DO increased,
due to the reduced salinity,
of his nutrient solution.
Second, osmotic pressure was reduced in the rhyzome,
allowing the plant to take in more H2o
and thus grow faster.
What does this second statement really mean?
Take your hand,
and leave it in salt water for an hour.
Your skin wrinkles,... why?
Because the salt
has caused the osmotic pressure
on the outdside of your skin
to be higher than the pressure inside your skin,
and as the water in your hand
is sucked out through your skin,
your hand actually shrinks
from the loss of fluid
and the skin becomes loose
It is harder for your plant
to uptake water and nutrients
when you use high nute loads,
because the salt creates negative osmotic pressure (hypertonicity)
against the semipermeable membrane
of the root cell walls.
Here is the Wiki "scientific answer".
Osmotic pressure is the hydrostatic pressure
produced by a solution
in a space divided by a semipermeable membrane (your roots)
due to a differential in the concentrations of solute.
Osmoregulation is the homeostasis mechanism of an organism
to reach balance in osmotic pressure.
Osmotic potential is the opposite of water potential
with the former meaning
the degree to which a solvent (usually water)
would want to stay in a liquid
and not pass through the membrane.Hypertonicity
is a solution that causes cells to shrink.
It may or may not have a higher
osmotic pressure than the cell interior
since the rate of water entry will depend upon the permeability of the cell membrane.Hypotonicity
is a solution that causes cells to swell
It may or may not have a lower
osmotic pressure than the cell interior,
since the rate of water entry will depend upon the permeability of the cell membrane.Isotonic
is a solution that produces no change in cell volume.
(this is what you want your nute solution to be)
When a biological cell is in a hypotonic
the cell interior accumulates water,
water flows across the cell membrane into the cell,
causing it to expand.
In plant cells,
the cell wall restricts the expansion,
resulting in pressure on the cell wall
from within called turgor
like swollen ankles or hands,
are not as productive.)
If you are good at math,
and want to get your nute solution perfect,
the osmotic pressure of a dilute solution
can be calculated using this formula
i = the Van t Hoff factor
M = the molarity
R = the gas constant, where R = 0.08206 L · atm · mol-1 · K-1
T = the thermodynamic temperature (formerly called absolute temperature)
Note: the similarity of the above formula to the ideal gas law
and also that osmotic pressure is not dependent on particle charge.
This equation was derived by van 't Hoff.
Now doing this calculation would be nice
if there are any college math majors out there,
but I use this chart,
and it has worked well for me.
_____________________% of Nute Load
As you can see, 50-75% is very adequate,
and it has been my personal experience,
that I have improved yields
and better taste,
when I use the lower end of "Sufficient",
on that chart.
Edited by Earl (07/21/08 09:19 AM)
#1372654 - 01/01/08 09:13 PM
I think ultrasonics are a dead end.
I am considering converting my recirc bubbler system to aero with high pressure foggers.
I've been looking at these: Mist King Misters
#1373118 - 01/03/08 12:33 PM
Yeah - I could give a rat's ass about the shutoff.
I do think though that most "aero" systems are anything but.
There is a huge difference between a coarse spray and an actual aerosol mist.
#1390683 - 03/01/08 02:00 PM
Loc: Synthetic farm
Here is some info
about some of the nutrient systems,
and additives, that help us grow hydro.
The next time you are in the Hydro store,
you will know more about the pretty bottles
lining the walls.
Plant Growth Hormones
Plant hormone research has come a long way in the last few years.
The natural plant growth regulators (or plant hormones) are gibberellic acid,
ethylene gas, abscisic acid (ABA), 4 auxins, and several cytokinins,
which all have their own specific effects on growth and development in plants.
There is a wide range of products available
that are made of ascophylum nodosum,
the North Alaskan sea kelp,
from which most cytokins are derived.
Growth Max - A seaweed extract made for foliar feeding plants.
An excellent and inexpensive way to give your plants an extra boost.
Nitrozime - very popular- growers swear by the results -
Nitrozime provides cytokinins to help control and regulate germination, root development,
nutrition uptake, plant tissue composition, flowering. seed and fruit set.
B'cuzz - Atami's line of stimulators are formulated from a combination of two kinds of seawwed,
Laminaria digitata and Ascophyllum nodosum.
These solutions help plants handle stress -
3 formulas, one for rooting, one for growth and one for bloom.
Liquid Karma - If you are looking for just one thing to add to nutrient regimen,
Liquid Karma is the one.
It is good for every stage of growth
and will definately increase branching points, fruit and flower sets
and overall yield by as much as 30% .
Liquid Karma Chelates micronutrients through amino and fulvic acids,
and shuttles them into plant cells,
increasing metabolic rates and conserves plant energy.
Full of B-vitamins and other stress relieving components
with large amount of cytokyns derived from ascophylum nodosum north atlantic sea kelp.
SuperNova - SuperNova contains high concentrations of cytokines
extracted from Ascophyllum Nodosum.
Cytokines increase cell division, which promotes vigorous plant
and root growth.
SuperNova also contains growth precursors, vitamins,
and amino acids.
Super Nova is made by general hydroponics to work with Dark Energy .
Humic and Fulvic Acids.
The primary benefit of both humic and fulvic acids
is improved plant growth.
There are three types of humates:
Only humic and fulvic acids,
currently play a role in hydroponics.
Humic acids change the turbidity of the cell
and in effect swell the cell up with more water,
creating an osmotic imbalance
and promoting the uptake of nutrient salts.
An added bonus is seen in root cells
when micoryzae are looking for their much needed first contact,
because the cell is more swelled up
it is easier for the microzyzzae to attach.
Fossil Fuel - FossilFuel employs high-quality humic acids
to help plants resist environmental stresses,
to improve the plants ability to absorb nutrients and water,
and stimulates plant growth through increased cell division.
It is HIGHLY ABSORBABLE, which is not true of most humates.
Rare Earth - A rich blend of silicon, humates and 72 rare minerals.
Blend with rooting media, top dress,
or add directly to nutrient solution
to develop a protective silicon shield.
Allows for stronger development and heavier fruit.
Diamond Black - Blended with rooting media,
Diamond Black will slowly break down
adding Humates to the root environment.
This is a pure mined material
and meets all organic standards for crop production.
Humates released into the plant's environment
regulate the flow and enhance the transport of plant nutrients
A long with its chelating properties,
fulvic acid is also a key factor in the Kreb cycle,
the plant's respiratory and metabolism system.
Providing this molecule reserves a plant's key energy reserves.
A recent study showed that plants treated with fulvic acid
experienced a 36% increase in produce weight at harvest,
a 36.5% increase plant growth,
and they flowered on average four days ahead of the control plants.
Studies indicate the use of humates in hydroponics
results in bigger plants and bigger veggies and quicker harvests.
Pure Fulvic Acids are small active organic molecules
and are excellent chelators which penetrate through plant surfaces and roots.
The results are healthier and stronger plants,
decreased water stress and improved soil moisture and structure.
Diamond Nectar - Diamond Nectar is a Fulvic Acid extract
from a combination of unique Leonardite sources
providing the highest availability and diversity
of these bioactive pant compounds.
The General Hydroponics research team has assayed over
300 different Leonardite sources around the world
to create a proprietary, pH balanced, fulvic acid
with maximum agronomic benefits.
Liquid Karma - Liquid Karma Chelates micronutrients
through amino and fulvic acids,
and shuttles them into plant cells,
increasing metabolic rates
and conserves plant energy.
Full of B-vitamins and other stress relieving components
with large amount of cytokyns derived from ascophylum nodosum,
north atlantic sea kelp.
Grandma Enggy's Fulvic Acid - From Avanced Nutrients ,
a brand you can trust!
Along with the major plant hormone research,
enzymes have become the recent focus of much attention.
Smaller yet amazingly powerful,
enzymes have a variety of important benefits for the hydro grower.
There are many different enzymes that all have different functions.
The hydroponic growing community is just beginning
to get a hold on what they all do.
There are two types of enzymes that we are most concerned with.
There are those that accelerate sugar/ resin production
and work to create flavor and aroma.
There are others that break down dying and dead plant proteins
into their component parts,
amino acids, lipids and smaller molecules
which can be reabsorbed by the plant.
Banana Manna,contains concentrated organic extracts
of banana, mango, guava and other exotic tropical plants
rich in hormones and vitamins
known to increase essential oil production in plants.
Cannazyme is a high-quality enzyme product.
It consists of more than 15 different kinds of enzymes
to which vitamins and extracts of desert plants are added.
Cannazym speeds up the process of breaking down dead root material
and activates the micro-organisms.
In addition to this, Cannazym facilitates the improved absorption
of nutrients and increases the resistance against pathogenic organisms.
Hygrozyme enzymatic formula prevents the formation of pythium
and algae, speeds up degradation of dead organic matters
and facilitates chemical nutrient assimilation.
It will create healthy white root growth in your plants.
It will not harm beneficial microbes
SensiZym is a super concentrate of over 80 different enzymes,
each having specific functions that enhance plant and root growth.
Part of the Advanced Nutrients line.
Great for soil or hydroponics.
Bud and Bloom boosters
Phosphorous and potassium are the two macro nutrients
directly involved in fruit/flower formation,
structure and overall taste, potency an aroma.
A lot of research has been done on these ever-important nutrients.
Feeding curves have been generated,
allowing growers to apply a more exact diet
to their fruiting flowering plants throughout the bloom phase.
Ionic Boostis a nutrient supplement
designed to be used in the final few weeks before harvest.
Boost allows the grower easy control of the extra Phosphorous and Potassium
that can lead to bumper yields.
Boost is an ideal addition to Ionic nutrient solutions
but can also be used very effectively
with any good quality nutrient solution of the Bloom variety.
Monster Bloom - An azure colored product from Grotek
derives its strength from super phosphates
and buffers, that deliver enhanced harvest results
never achieved before.
Blessed with this blue powder,
plants Increase OIL production!
And produce Extra Large Buds!
Kool Bloom - Designed for use in the second half
of reproductive development,
this concentrated nutrient supplement
increases the production of essential oils and fragrance in flowers.
Advanced Nutrients Big Bud - is Big Bud's plant specific ratios
of Phosphorous, Potassium, Magnesium and Amino Acids.
Big Bud will dramatically increase bud growth,
width, weight and resin production
like no other bloom enhancing product can.
Advanced Nutrients Over Drive - Overdrive is an ultra premium flower booster
with an extremely extensive and very complex array
of phosphorus and potassium sources.
Hormones and catalytic agents are added
in order to pack on extra girth and weight that produce
unparalleled flower and oil production
during the critical last weeks of flowering
when plants show the most sizeable gains.
Silicate helps strengthen plant tissue
helping plants flourish in adverse environmental conditions
such as heat, drought, and frost.
For use in container gardens or soilless hydrogardening applications
Pro Silicate - Pro-Silicate toughens the cell walls of your plant
to form a physical barrier against insects and disease.
The major building block for plant cells,
silicone increases resistance to mildews, fungus and insect attacks,
where the stronger cell walls counter predatory probings.
Pro Silicate protects your plants from wilting and droughts
by acting as an insulation against water loss through transpiration
at higher temperatures.
Plants can grow at higher temperatures.
Pro Silicate will also help increase flower count
and prolong bloom life.
Silica Blast - Silicate is a beneficial nutrient supplement
to be used in conjunction with standard nutrient program.
Silica Blast was designed by American Agritech
to be used specifially with their Botanicare Line of products.
Barricade readily available Potassium Slicate from Advanced Nutrients.
Phospholipid agents, are an extremely powerful
group of activators & transporters of Humatic Isolates.
The Phospholipid technologies developed by Dutch Master
can be tailored to suit a wide range of Humatic Isolates
as well as directing those isolates
to activate specific subsystems of plant growth, development or physiology.
Phospholipids create membranes in channel,
so that larger molecules can quickly enter a cell.
Dutch Master Folitech Folitech Grow and Flower
are two unique foliar sprays designed to enhance your plants ability
to support and produce larger numbers of flowers
than would normally be possible.
Folitech is a two stage product with a vegetative and a flowering formulation
which are designed to be used
at the appropriate stage of the plants development.
Dutch Master Penetrator
is uniquely engineered to maintain this stability
whilst allowing full transfer of foliar fertilizer elements
into the plant via the leaf structure.
If the stability or the electrical charge of this membrane
is not correctly maintained for the full duration of the transfer
then only limited amounts of the fertilizer you apply
will actually penetrate past this layer.
By combining the 2 actions
of cuticle permeability & plasma membrane stability,
Penetrator can safely & accurately
deliver all of your foliar applied fertilizer to your plants.
All without the risk of burning & damaging your plants.
How to use reservoir additives in your nutrient solution
When using additives,
it would be ideal to clean the reservoir every week.
This is the way to keep your plants growing super strong,
and to really keep things healthy and clean.
If you are going to change your reservoir about once a week,
use the following method.
First add the appropriate additives in the correct dosage.
Add nutrients, bringing the nutrient load to the desired level.
pH balance the reservoir.
Don’t add additives again,
until you clean and redo the reservoir.
Follow this program until end,
then you will use a flushing agent,
for the final 7-14 days.
Most people change their reservoir every 10-14 days,
although this isn’t the absolute best, it is fine.
If you use this longer, scheduled method,
then you will want to add,
½ the amount of original additives,
at the end of 7 days.
Using Botanicare Pure Blend Pro
Botanicare Pure Blend Pro is an organic nutrient
with 10-15% pure mineral content.
PBP contains absorbable forms of iron, calcium and phosphorous.
The phosphorous comes from pure rock phosphate.
PureBlend is a one-part nutrient,
with a vegetative, and a bloom formula.
This line requires a calcium magnesium micronutrient boost
and Cal-Mag Plus must be used
at the end of the vegetative period,
and throughout the bloom cycle.
CM+ helps to prevent micronutrient deficiencies.
Liquid Karma was made to be used with the PBP line,
as well as Silica Blast
a bacterial innoculant and fungicide.
It it also recommend
to use one of the enzymatic formulas
For those who are concerned about large flowers and fruits,
using Big Bud, Monster Bloom, or Overdrive.
Also Banana Mana
can be used for resin and sugar building.
Clearex is a great flushing agent
and is made to work with the Botanicare Line.
PLEASE NOTE: Many hydro growers have begun noticing a problem
with the feeding chart/directions on the PureBlend Pro bottles.
If you follow their directions,
you will find that the strenght of your solution is way too high.
It is best to monitor the PPM in your solution.
If you don't have a way of monitoring your solution,
we HIGHLY reccomend you use a less
than the directions call for.
(this is generally good advice anyway).
For best results,
keep the pH of your nutrient solution,
between 5.8 – 6.2 for soil, and 5.5-5.8 for hydro.
For Advanced Nutrients User
Advanced Nutrients Sensi Grow and Sensi Bloom
Advanced Nutrients are some of the best nutrients on the hydroponic market.
There are many AN additives
and it can be slightly overwhelming to manage
until you understand their function.
Generally AN suggest you use only RO water,
and keep a ph of 5.6
What makes the AN nutes themselves special,
is that the micro nutrients are individually chelated,
(as opposed to most other mfg, which does batch chelation)
AN nutrients come from premium mineral sources,
and they are available in the 2 part formula.
Always add the supplements before you add nutrients.
#1393535 - 03/09/08 01:47 PM
Re: CC Hydro 101 by Earl
Loc: Synthetic farm
We all know how important it is to maintaining the proper pH.
Here are some tips from Pinpoint
on how to maintain your pH meter
so that it is giving you the critical information you need
to maximize your yields.
Clean the probe tip gently every 3–4 weeks
using a SOFT TOOTHBRUSH ONLY .
Push the probe tip down into the wet bristles
and rotate the probe 3–4 times.
This will clean the inner surfaces of the probe
as well as the sensing glass
and reference junctions.
No other cleaners are necessary, or recommended.
Occasional replacement of the probe is necessary to maintain performance.
The probe should be discarded and replaced
when it can no longer be calibrated with 2 different calibration fluids.
The useful life of a PINPOINT pH Probe
is approximately 18 months of continuous duty.
Important Points to Remember:
PINPOINT pH Monitor has been designed as a continuous monitor.
However, if you wish to activate the unit ON and OFF as needed,
this will lengthen the battery life from months to years.
PINPOINT pH meter is NOT waterproof
and must be operated on a dry surface.
Liquid contact with the printed circuit board
may cause corrosion and void warranty.
The clear plastic cap must be removed from the tip of the probe
so that pH values can be measured.
A small amount of storage fluid may be expelled;
this is normal.
There may be some white salt
which is Potassium Chloride residue,
from the storage solution and forms
around the clear plastic cap.
This is normal,
and can be washed off
(avoid contact with distilled or RO water)
Keep the sensing surface of the probe WET at all times.
If the probe is to be transported or stored,
the plastic cap must be filled with storage solution,
or 4.00 calibration fluid,
prior to being installed onto the probe.
Probe should be inserted at least 1 inch into the liquid to be measured.
Probe may be totally submerged if desired.
If several probes are used,
(i.e., pH and TDS, or several pH probes, etc.)
space the probes 3–4 inches apart,
so that the probes will not react with each other,
and yield erroneous readings.
Clean the sensing glass and reference junctions of the probe,
every few weeks by using only a wet soft toothbrush.
Replace the probe every 18 months for optimum performance.
Check the calibration monthly to verify your pH readings.
Place the probe into 2 different calibration fluids,
(e.g. 7.00 & 10.00),
to verify that it can read the 2 fluids correctly.
Recalibrate the meter if either, or both,
of the 2 calibration fluids are displayed incorrectly.
Do not allow air bubbles to accumulate under a vertically installed electrode.
1. Glass body electrode versus Epoxy (plastic) body electrode: Glass body electrodes stand higher temperatures (typically 100 C against 80 C for plastic) and are more resistant to corrosive chemicals and solvents. They are easier to clean and are available in different shapes depending on the application. On the other hand plastic body electrodes are more rugged and the glass bulb is better protected.
2. Gel filled electrodes versus refillable electrodes: refillable electrodes last longer since electrolyte can be changed for repeated usage. The response is faster due to a greater outflow of electrolyte into the sample and therefore less likely to clog. Gel filled electrodes require less maintenance and resist to higher pressure.
3. Double reference junction versus Single junction reference: Double junction reference electrodes have a longer live and protects the sample measured from silver contamination from the electrolyte. The Silver wire is more protected and therefore gets less contaminated. The single junction electrodes normally costs less and is ideal for general purpose applications
4. Conic shaped versus Sphere shaped: The conic shaped electrode is easier to clean and to maintain (ideal for applications such as dairy). Has a more rugged tip and therefore ideal for penetration. The sphere-shaped has a faster response time due to the larger surface area on the bulb.
#1406545 - 04/21/08 08:25 PM
Re: CC Hydro 101, Selecting pumps.
Loc: Synthetic farm
Along with "flow rate," a pump's "head pressure"
(or more accurately "pressure-head," "shut-off head," or "shut-off pressure")
is a term often used in pump literature to describe how powerful a pump is.
"Flow rate" is simply the volume of water a pump can move
during a given amount of time.
Pump flow rates are usually expressed in gallons per hour
or gallons per minute.
"Head pressure" on the other hand is more complicated.
"Head" may be simply defined as any resistance to the flow of a pump.
When pump manufacturers list the head pressure,
they are referring to the vertical discharge pressure head.
Described in very simple terms, a pump's vertical discharge "pressure-head"
is the vertical lift in height (usually measured in feet of water)
at which a pump can no longer exert enough pressure to move water.
At this point, the pump may be said to have reached its "shut-off" head pressure.
When you look at a flow curve chart for a pump,
the "shut-off head" is the point on the graph
where the curved line becomes horizontal
as the flow rate at that point is zero.
The higher a pump's head pressure,
the more powerful the pump.
To use flow rate and head pressure to help you select a water pump,
you need to know how much water you need to move through your system.
( the volume of your spray jets and filters combined)
And how much resistance (head) the pump will encounter
as it moves water from point A to point B.
For any pipe system,
in addition to the friction losses,
there are additional losses called minor losses.
(although in our case these losses may far exceed the friction loss).
These losses arise due to the pipe entrance and exit,
sudden expansion or contraction,
bends, elbows, and other fittings, filters, or valves, etc.
What this means is that the amount of friction created by the fittings
is the same as that of the specified straight pipe.
We can add this length of straight pipe to the total pipe length in the system
and compute the friction loss.Engineering data Pump Head Loss Calculator
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