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Green Cross Society Of B.C , Cannabis Presentation


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#41 W/O Reason

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Posted 29 April 2009 - 07:04 AM

The Green Cross Society
Provincially registered non-profit members run society.
Federal license to distribute cannabis for medical purposes.Requires recommendation from physician or specialist.
Roughly 4,000 current members.
All of our members have disabilities.
70% of members are managing chronic pain.
50% of members are HIV positive


You people still don't get it! I have absolutely NOTHING against the INFORMATION you are providing.

ALL YOU NEED TO DO IS REMOVE THE STATEMENT THAT I PUT IN BOLD ABOVE.

The Green Cross (or ANY other compassion club for that matter) DOES NOT possess a "Federal license to distribute cannabis". PERIOD.



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#42 Jason W

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Posted 29 April 2009 - 08:24 AM

Quote:
The Green Cross may have a "federal business license" for its business to operate, but it does not have a "federal business license to distribute cannabis", unless I have completely missed something. Which is entirely possible. Please educate me if you feel there is a discrepancy in how I am defining the claim of being licensed to distribute cannabis.

It is a difference in wording and how we define that wording. There seems to be a discrepancy in what is being said and what is being understood, since technically no one can "legally" distribute cannabis except for PPS. Please clarify if you wish.


Hi Heather,

At this a time when our community & culture is under attack by the FEDS regardless of medical or recreational status with Bill C-15!

We as a community, culture, member, or representatives of any persons serving cannabis in the medicinal realm must adhere to some logic and reason when commenting in public forums for with medical comes ethics or so it should be! Moreover having the supply lines disrupted spells trouble for medical end users who access these clubs and dispensaries.

Bill C-15 if passed will be a disaster for those non-criminal elements that assist the sick. Moreover they will simply pack up and the GUN & GANGS will move into the medical realm leaving high prices, safety, and quality of life for those who do not have a FED CARD in disarray or facing mandatory minimums for the drug of their choice.

Heather I understand wording is important I have learned this over time I just wish my spelling could catch up to this understanding of fact. This said after reviewing this thread. It appears that Dr. Paul Hornby addressed this issue on a previous post on page 3 of this thread? Note the date this was a three month old dead thread do questions remain on this topic?



Quote:
#1483296 - 01/01/09 01:31 PM Re: Green Cross Society Of B.C , Cannabis Presentation [Re: Dragon 420]

Originally Posted By: Dr. Paul Hornby
We must clear up this misunderstanding on the Cannabis Culture Forum.
Referring to the Federal Business License to Distribute Cannabis for Medicinal Purposes. This is my mistake and am the first to agree that it appears misleading. My point in stating this was to establish that we are recognized by Ottawa as a business that "distributes cannabis for medicinal purposes." And, that we pay taxes. That's it. In my talk, i may have clarified this a little better, not sure, but i normally do. And, as stated, merely to lend legitimacy to what we do.
Grow in peace
Paul Hornby



My personal interpretation is a federal recognition of the work they (The Green Cross) are doing is reflective of a business licence and transparency with the FEDS but not a distribution licence for as we all know PPS was the sole medical provider while the MMAD chews on the recent SCC decision out of Ontario they have 12 months to respond and amend the MMAR to reflect the Ontario SCC decision to not hear out the feds on their monopoly on cannabis.

So where am I going with all this simply put I respect all in the movement be it medical or otherwise for we are all intertwined in this war in one way or another. We need to come together in BC and network & capacity build wherever possible with those willing to try. I am a member with all clubs in BC that I am aware of other than the Nelson club simply because I have not been there yet.

Can we look towards unity rather than remain in disillusion as to the medical service rendered by all clubs in BC and the risk they take to assist end medical users like myself. The FEDS are watching maybe even one day willing to talk with provincial operators for dispensing when and if that time comes we as a medical service community need reflect professionalism while representing a dispensary, society, or club for you as representatives are inadvertently speaking to your membership when you are questioning other dispensing facilities then requisitioning after resolving the statement that drew upraise serves to misinform or detract from the work of all applicable parties.

Having worked for and with community based dispensary’s in Victoria I can relate to the internal issues and political pitfalls this said I ask you all should we not be more directionally focused for 2009 for if we harness this energy wasted on threads that detract from our mission and direct it at the FEDS we IMO will have a much more productive and forward thinking medical service providers. When working for the sick or disabled we need think of our membership before ourselves like with any other care service facility. Having been sick for 16 years I have been around a few such facilities while assisted in building a few as well. Ethics, compassion, honesty, respect, compromise, how hard is this to see. The FEDS just may look at federal licences to distribute cannabis hence a host of new dispensaries will pop up for they will be able to legally protect the growers via contract. It is not legalization but a short term solution to a long term problem being Supply and Demand. It is my hope we can all stop the bashing of one another and respect each other for their commitment rather than a comment. Seeking clarification is one thing attacking the work of anyone trying to assist is just wrong again IMO.

Community starts with understanding and communication thus I wonder why we are not more united in the province of BC. Ontario had 10 or more decisions in court for I believe Ontario is a more progressive province do to the lack of BS infighting.

In closing we need remember for every 1 person posting there are 100+ reading and watching hence public precipitation becomes disillusioned over misinformation or lack of communication. Lets come together for time is ticking on cannabis lets show the FEDS we are a united Province of BC!

Sincerely,

Jason Wilcox
Cannbis in Canada



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#43 Jason W

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Posted 29 April 2009 - 08:29 AM

The Green Cross Society
Provincially registered non-profit members run society.
Federal license to distribute cannabis for medical purposes.Requires recommendation from physician or specialist.
Roughly 4,000 current members.
All of our members have disabilities.
70% of members are managing chronic pain.
50% of members are HIV positive

Ok given this was posted this morning I see where this confussion lies. I hope all can refelct some facts!

Jason Wilcox
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#44 Ted Smith

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Posted 29 April 2009 - 09:41 AM

Actually Jason you are no longer a member of the CBC of C after all of your attacks this year. How can you pretend to be interested in unity when you have gone so far out of the way to attack my work and the activities of our club? Maybe if you apologized first I could believe you are sincere when you say we should be working together. Maybe.

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#45 Dragon 420

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Posted 29 April 2009 - 11:20 AM

Green Cross Society Of B.C
Paul Hornby, Ph.D. and Bree Stegman, RN
We must clear up this misunderstanding on the Cannabis Culture Forum.
Referring to the Federal Business License to Distribute Cannabis for Medicinal Purposes. This is my mistake and am the first to agree that it appears misleading. My point in stating this was to establish that we are recognized by Ottawa as a business that "distributes cannabis for medicinal purposes." And, that we pay taxes. That's it. In my talk, i may have clarified this a little better, not sure, but i normally do. And, as stated, merely to lend legitimacy to what we do.
Grow in peace
Dr Hornby
Table of contents

HIV/ Cannabis Phenomenon
Cannabis Efficacy
Mental Health & Addictions
Green Cross Society
Standardization & Quality Control

The HIV/Cannabis Phenomenon

Roughly 40% of HIV+ people use cannabis therapeutically.
10,000 HIV+ persons are using compassion clubs in Canada (CAS).
MMAR started in 2001 to provide legal access to medical cannabis.
Only 2206 MMAR exemptions for all diseases/conditions
86% are buying from black markets (CAS).

Antiviral Side Effects

Abdominal painMitochondrial toxicity
Myalgia
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
Myopathy
Nausea
Neutropenia
Nightmares
Ulcers
Pancreatitis
Paresthesia
Peripheral neuropathy
Rash
Renal failure
Somnolence
Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Taste alteration
Vomiting
Xeroderma

Alopecia
Anemia
Asthenia
Depression
Diarrhea
Dizziness
Fanconi syndrome
Flatulence
Headaches
Hepatitis
Hyperbilirubinemia
Hypercholerterolemia
Hyperpigmentation
Ingrown nails
Insomnia
Jaundice
Lipodystrophy
Liver failure
Malaise
Mental confusion

CD4 CD8 and Viral Load

Dr. Donald Abrams (California).
Slight decrease in HIV RNA in cannabis group vs. placebo.
Increase in body weight in cannabis group vs. placebo.
Slight decrease in viral load in cannabis group.
Morphine increases HIV1 expression (Journal of Immunology). Methadone more even effects but same physical effects as opiate dependency
2003 Annals of Internal Medicine-Abrams-ACTS



Cannabis Efficacy
(is why its illegal)


AIDS / HIV
ADHD
Arthritis
Brain / Head Injury
Cancer
Chronic Pain
Colitis
Chemotherapy
Crohn’s Disease
Epilepsy
Fibromyalgia
Glaucoma
Hepatitis and interferon tx
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Migraines
Mood disorders
Multiple Sclerosis
Muscular Dystrophy
Nausea
Nutrition
Paraplegia / Quadriplegia
Parkinson’s Disease
Radiation Therapy
Seizure Disorders
Sleep disorders
Substance Addiction and Withdrawal
Tourettes

Cannabis Efficacy

Immune modulating, anti-inflammatory analgesic.
Treats a broad range of illnesses.
Chronic/neuropathic pain (analgesia).
Arthritis (anti-inflammatory).
Cytokine release (immune modulation).
No apparent toxicity (even long-term
THC: pain relief, appetite, anti-nausea

CBD: muscle relaxant, sedation, anti-psychotic, breast cancer

CBN: stimulation/anxiety, tachycardia

Cannabis Side-effects
THC overdose: confusion, paranoia, racing heart
Incorrect strain selection:
poor efficacy, increased pain, unwanted stimulation
Psychosis
No deaths No violence
Non-toxic
No cannabis only related diagnosis for cancer, addiction

Cannabis & Mental Health
Controversial, recent research since 2006 refutes any causal link, prior research biased/faulty
Minority of schizophrenics will have an aggravation of their symptoms
Moderate doses treat many conditions
Mental Health
Anxiety/Depression/Bipolar
Schizophrenia
Insomnia/Irritable
Negative thought patterns/awareness
Opportunity, Empowerment/ Perspective of locus of control


HIV/AIDS & mental health

Depression & mental illness predispose people genetically to addiction.
Substance Abuse predisposes people to acquire blood borne diseases through impaired self care, personal losses, fragmented family/support network, poverty and vulnerability.
Depression & dementia are side effects of medications/substances & condition. Depression associated with all chronic conditions. Up to 60% in HIV/AIDS
Cannabis & neurotransmitters
Mental health theory of serotonin,
glutamate & dopamine: genetics & stress malform/mutate receptors.
Dopamine helps to release Serotonin. Antidepressant drugs & Gprotein neuroreceptors (like gaba/cannabinoids or SSRI’s) downregulate serotonin to increase dopamine firing
Endocannabinoid system master control/ disinhibition of all inhibitory & excitatory neurotransmission equals=
BALANCE
Dated studies flawed as they only look at presynaptic receptor activity and cannabis is a postsynaptic reverse signaller, not the standard theory of neurotransmission

Mental Health & Other Natural Supplements


Amino acids: Omega 6 & 12 boost serotonin in fish & hemp powder
Vitamin B6 & B12/water: anemia, fatigue
Bananas, cheese & walnuts: serotonin
Chocolate & Hemp powder: cannabinoids

SAME-E: dopamine & serotonin
Tyrosine: dopamine
Phenylanine: dopamine, norepinephrine/adrenaline
GABA: natural GABA source, like the pharmaceutical drug gabapentin
BRAIN FOOD!

The Green Cross Society
Provincially registered non-profit members run society.
Requires recommendation from physician or specialist.
Roughly 4,000 current members.
All of our members have disabilities.
70% of members are managing chronic pain.
50% of members are HIV positive

Consults with physicians on memberships/prescriptions.
Advises on natural product therapies and life style changes for an improved quality of life.
Strong bias toward science.
Support network
Addictions Recovery: (amphetamines, heroin, cocaine, alcohol).
HIV / AIDS: open discussion, seminars and workshops. Links with organizations.
Chronic Pain: group support, sharing experience and methods of pain management
QC and Standardization
Quality Control
Tests for pesticide, heavy metal and pathogenic bacteria, yeast and mold.
Standardization
Cannabinoid profiles on all cannabis products.
Research
Case studies, pilot clinical trials.
Membership data collection and analysis.

Research

Continued research into the efficacy of cannabis in chronic pain management.
Second year studies on cannabis and management of anti-viral side effects.
Research on neuropathy related pain management.
Harm reduction qualities of cannabis in street drug addiction recovery
Observations/Conclusions

Significant reduction in opiate & anti-depressant consumption.
Harm reduction properties in withdrawal from prescription and streets drugs.
Stabilization of digestive disorders (IBS).
Improved quality of life through group support.
Much more research needed

References
AIDS InfoNet. 2007. Depression & HIV, fact sheet 558.
http://www.aidsinfonet.org
Canadian Aids Society. Position paper on medical marijuana access.
http://www.cdnaids.ca/web/setup.nsf/(Act...0Quality%5D.pdf
GW Pharmaceuticals. Guy, Whittle & Robson, 2004. The medicinal uses of cannabis and cannabinoids.
International Association for Cannabis as Medicine Society Research
American Medical Association 2008 position paper
Dr. Abrams: CMCRS, AIDS committee of Toronto 2007,
http://www.aidsmap.c...E883-4F77-9597- B2A5598729E9.asp
Dr. Amen: Anxiety, Depression & natural supplements:
http://www.amenclini...ety-depression/
Dr. Ray Sahelian: Phenylalanine for depression, http://www.raysaheli...nylalanine.html
Endocanabinoid system: http//:lib.bioinfo.pl/pmid:15973410
_________________________

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#46 Jason W

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Posted 29 April 2009 - 01:22 PM

Quote:
Actually Jason you are no longer a member of the CBC of C after all of your attacks this year. How can you pretend to be interested in unity when you have gone so far out of the way to attack my work and the activities of our club? Maybe if you apologized first I could believe you are sincere when you say we should be working together. Maybe.


I need not apologize for speaking the truth and indeed one day Ted you and I may be on talking terms again for time heals all wounds however do not expect an apology unless you wish to give one as well. It takes two to tangle and we did.

Removing my membership LMAO nicethread It does not surprise me that you would take that sort of action let me guess you removed Ann's as well just as she was fired for me taking a job in Vancouver?

Ted I was just saying to Ann the other day that one day for capacity building purposes we need put our difference aside for the better good of the movement PERIOD.

The problem remains Ted you have preconditions for any adult dialogue in relation to capacity building rather you wine for an apology like you did with DML. When mature dialogue is needed in the movement preconditions to capacity building reflects as barriers to communication and the cause. When I am wrong I say hence do not try to set any conditions with me for with or without you people will move forward in a direction of unity which is on my U-Tube channel going back to when I worked for you LOL Community and Unity

http://www.youtube.c...re=channel_page


notice the date TED pay attention prior to questioning my good will in open form try to think with truth you simply put your foot in your mouth again. spam

I hope this is you last kick at the can I have lost interest in petty CC pissing contests and games? It has been 6 months I am still the way I was this said I must say your new found fun community building cut and paste topics do draw some great attention. When your ready to have an adult conversation let me know?

If anyone should apologize it is you Ted after 13 years you would think one would learn conflict resolution skills yet you engage confrontation. WHY?

In closing my issue was with you and you alone as many on these forums know yet you site removing my membership as though I had trashed the name and work of the CBC of C as with Hempology which is simply not the case. I beg you to prove me wrong! I addressed you and your ethics nothing else just you and me if you have a referenced quote to suggest otherwise please post it or consider dialogue with no precondition this is how you capacity build Ted I suggest we all try as I mentioned in the prior post backed up by the new Nov of 08 Link provided above!.

As for my membership your post today was the first we heard of such action. That is your issue not mine nor the CBC of C but then again it’s Teds way right!

Take Care!

Jason Wilcox
Cannabis in Canada


Jason Wilcox
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#47 MED HEAD

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Posted 29 April 2009 - 07:42 PM

I gave up on the green cross cant seem to even get a email returned glad my condition isnt life treathing.I am glad I am a member at the dispensary

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be cool @shine on plant the seed and let it be.
I just listen

#48 MED HEAD

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Posted 29 April 2009 - 07:45 PM

I gave up on the green cross cant seem to even get a email returned glad my condition isnt life treathing.I am glad I am a member at the dispensary. o I forgot thanks for throwing Tims name out on a public forum like that I am sure he appreciated that not very cool at all

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be cool @shine on plant the seed and let it be.
I just listen

#49 Dragon 420

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Posted 30 April 2009 - 06:51 AM

Cannacaps
http://www.greencros...h_cannacaps.php

Cannacaps are standardized, quality controlled, activated natural product cannabis capsules.

Standardization means that each cap contains the same dosage of a major active in the prep. In the case of cannacaps they are standardized to the dosage of THC, which is by far the most abundant active in the capsules. So, each capsule contains the same amount of THC. Also known, but not displayed on the label is the amount of cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) in each cap.

By quality control we mean that the raw material that goes into the caps is tested for heavy metals (lead, arsenic, mercury, chromium 6 and ), pesticides (those commonly used in cannabis growing, such as avid) and pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli, Coliforms, etc). Two of these tests, heavy metals and bacteria are made in qualified laboratories outside of the Green Cross, whereas pesticide and standardization are performed in-house. The latter two tests are done using an instrument called High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) that allows the analyst to identify and quantify principle compounds in a mixture. In this way we can locate, identify and quantify pesticides that may be in the prep plus using a different HPLC method we can identify and quantify the major cannabinoids present in a bud sample or raw material that is going into capsules.

By activated natural product cannabis capsules we are referring to decarboxylation of the various cannabinoids. Decarboxylation simply means removal of carbon dioxide from the cannabinoid molecule. We will use THC as the example. In nature, THC exists as an acid, with what is called a carboxyl group stuck on the molecule. With the carboxyl group on, THC is not psychoactive, remove it THC binds the receptor and we have the psychoactive effects, including pain relief, Anti-tremor activity and appetite stimulation. Without decarboxylation, these effects do not occur. The same, holds true for the other cannabinoids such as CBD and CBN, decarboxylation must occur to activate the molecule. Decarboxylation can be achieved through light energy, chemical bases, or through heat.
Benefit of Cannacaps:

Cannacaps offer a healthy alternative to smoking cannabis. Many persons using cannacaps find that their smoking decreases significantly. A few caps a day provides a feeling of general well being, whereas persons in chronic pain find best relief administering every four to six hours. Cannacaps can be designed to suit individual needs, taking advantage of the strain specificity of cannabis and are often provided in am/pm formulation for day and nighttime use. On cannacaps a person tends to eat good, sleep good and poop good. We maintain that oral cannabis is the medicine of the future and that as an herbal medicine; standardized, natural product cannabis, will be a leader.
A. Paul Hornby, Ph.D. September 16, 2008

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#50 Dragon 420

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Posted 30 April 2009 - 06:53 AM



Decoding/Understanding the neural matrix: The Endocannabinoid system, Pain, mental health and addiction Pharmacology & Neurotransmitters action in the CNS.
http://www.greencros...ding_matrix.php

Bree Stegman, RN, September 2008
Introduction:

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a neural network which tone regulates mood and natural painkillers.
Cannabis has many complex actions as a neurotransmitter; it is synthesized on demand and is a master regulator of the nervous system. It has receptor and non receptor pathways such as enzyme inhibition and competition. Cannabis effects include receptor antagonist and agonist actions of serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), glutamate, gamma-aminobutyrilc acid (GABA) and acetylcholine (Ach) (Guy,
Whittle & Robson, 2004, p.106), CB1 cannabis receptors are some of the most common receptors in the body involved in crosstalk between receptors in the brain including nonopiod emotional perception of pain, the SIA in the amygdala (Hohman & Suplita, 2006), PAG (Guy et al, 2004, p.239), the area of conditioned fear (Bearman, 2008), RVM, p.276 and vanilloid VR1 receptors (Schlicker & Kathman, 2001). It is my aim to provide teaching to members of the medical field and humanity as mental health consumers for an approach to understanding cannabis research and its medical effects.
GABA/CB1/GPCR

Cannabinoids THC and CBN, CBD ( and the brain's own marijuana (endocannabinoids such as Anadamide and 2AG) bind to an exceptionally abundant receptor in our nervous system named CB1 that is classified as a g protein coupled receptor (GPCR). Another less numerous G coupled receptor includes inhibitory GABA, such as the medication Gabapentin or Lyrica or narcotic benzodiazepines like Ativan or Diazepam use in shutting down electric pain, epileptic and mood signals. CB1 receptors are coupled in nerve terminals with GABA. CB1 receptors are also located presynaptically to inhibit neurotransmitter release in the hippocampus (Schlicker & Kathman, 2001). CBD is a cannabinoid that has very weak affinity for central nervous system (CNS) CB1 receptors so some call it an antagonist or inverse agonist and usually is about 40% of cannabinoids. CBD is shown to activate serotonin receptors (Gardener, 2007). CBD is shown to have anti-anxiety, anti-seizure, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and sedative effects (Gardener, 2007) (Rodriguez et al., 2006). Cannabinoids CBC and CBG are not known to have effects at CB1.

Cannabis hijacks GABA GPCR's common pathways of Gi/Go, or Gs. These G's re like secondary neurotransmitters. Gi/Go is the major inhibitory and anti-anxiety route that cannabis influence on nerve transmission usually follows because its receptors far outnumber Gs (Glass & Felder, 1997), but can use the stimulatory Gs path in chronic use (Rubino et al., 2000). This marks the difference in effect on acute versus chronic users. The body is a balancing act tending to down regulate or up regulate eventually what is tipping the scales.

For example with SSRI's such as Prozac increases serotonin by preventing serotonin being uptake at the postsynapse, circulating the serotonin message longer. Serotonin increases CNS cell growth, however desensitizes the amount of receptors available for use (American Scientist, 2000) (Personal research). This means that strong or prolonged cannabis use may eventually provide a weak blockade at the CB1 receptor. Cannabis imitates many drugs of current pharmacy and also has this effect at 5-HT1 serotonin receptors. However most users of cannabis don't want to hear that cannabis works like pharma, albeit in a less harmful manner. This should be looked on as positive because the harsh side effects of SSRI's demonstrate that cannabis works more specifically yet multitudinal and in the same way. This also throws out the window that a synthetic agonist or antagonist has an opposite or like effect of cannabis as it both stimulates the endocannabinoids system.

All the major natural classical cannabinoids studied so far (THC, CBD, CBN) are shown to be partial agonists (Bonhaus et al., 1998), meaning it has both door opening and closing results on a neuron using primarily Gi/Go or sometimes THC to Gs to modulate adenylate cyclase (to primarily decrease or sometimes increase this enzyme) for energy to shut down or stimulate a nerve. This explains the main action of cannabis, however many g-proteins used are not bound to adenylate cyclase or nonnarcotic GABAb (Howlett, 1995).

GPCR's decrease calcium channels and increase potassium channels to increase nerve shutdown, and decreases cAMP energy (Piomelli, 2003). However potassium channels can also be decreased directly by CB1. CB1 receptors are said to work as retrograde signaling to then continue to pass on the original message post synaptically as GABAa is blocked presynaptically (Piomelli, 2003). This means that although a study may prove that a neurotransmitter is blocked by cannabis it does not tell the whole story of how messages can be alternatively passed. Another study shows that GABAb is stimulated in the hippocampus by CB1 receptor activation, and that neither action is due to opiod manipulation which is coupled to g-proteins as well, but rather calcium channel shutdown (Hoffman & Lupica, 2000). GABA eventually increases serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitters.

As well terpenes, the essential oil on the surface of plant cannabis has a medical effect that acts as SSRI: increases norepinephrine, increase dopamine and GABA, aids the activity of cannabinoids (Guy, p.166). Has anti-anxiety anti depressant effects in studies (p.172, 177-178, 237 253). CBC THC and CBD are proven as anti-depressant and anxiety chemicals. The use of the endocannabinoids Anadamide as a THC substitute in studies are unreliable, 2AG an endocannabinoid and synthetics that are active at CB1 are standard (Wiley, 1999).
Got it Backwards?

The message travels backwards across the synapse in a feedback loop as the receiving nerve effects the transmitting cells. This mode of signaling is reverse from the traditional model and is now called: depolarization induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) (Nicoll & Alger, 2004), as a method of nerve communication. This is the reverse of the standard thinking that neurotransmitters are released pre across the synapse to send messages to the post receptor, and reflect the difficulty of interpreting research studies in isolation and are easily open to manipulation of data given the presented material in this literature review.

So even though cannabis is a major inhibitory action on excitatory neuroreceptors presynaptically such as glutamate, serotonin, acetylcholine, noradrenalin release, a balancing act can occur as blanket inhibition is blocked as well (Piomelli, 2003). THC is also proven to stimulate adenylate cyclase energy using this Gs protein stimulatory route (Baywitch et al. 1996), and therefore can stimulate neurotransmission release. Therefore cannabis contains substances that are agonist and antagonist in its effects (a partial agonist). Thus balancing overstimulation and over inhibition in the brain (Grotenherman, 2006). Damaged neuroreceptors malfunction and over or under produce neurotransmitters. The area generally studied is in the hippocampus and cerebellum with GABa and glutamate with retrograde signaling (Guy et al, 2004, p.112), (Schlicker & Kathmann, 2001).

(See glossary and compare a picture of the endocannabinoids system with the picture of neurotransmission).

Anti-anxiety drugs such as Valium/Diazepam or Ativan/Lorazepam act by inhibitory GABA a, the narcotic versus GABAb the cannabis route but are partial synthetic substitutes (Wiley, 1999). Synthetics are modeled after THC and active at CB1, however natural cannabis contain other cannbinoids that bind and have effects as well.

Natural cannabis is not an alkaloid because it contains no nitrogen chain, such as other medical herbs, nicotine, caffeine or narcotics, herbs such as valerian or morphine known for anti-anxiety properties has GABA effects. Anti-anxiety effects are attributed to blockading FAAH (Piomelli, 2003) and adenylate cyclase (Hohman, & Suplita, 2006) which both break down endocannabinoids 2AG and Anadamide (Hohman & Suplita, 2006). Anadamide was isolated as a lipid and not as a peptide/protein like morphine and its enkephalins (Piomelli, 2003). Because it is a fat, it can readily be absorbed and be effective in areas of the brain's enzymes. It is a partial agonist at the CB1 receptor and vannilloid VR1 capsaicin or pain receptor (Guy et al, 2004, p.108, 127). Cannabis is non narcotic and had less in common with opiates than coffee, but has several neurotransmitter effects.

Studies that lament increases in dopamine transmitter and blocked serotonin receptors represent skewed science, in which the majority neurotransmitters are blocked pre and then selectively stimulated pre retroactively through the post nerve using CB1 receptors, such as in the case of dopamine (Bearman, 2006). Anadamide is created in response to stress or the presence of an overabundant dopamine supply for this purpose to create neurotransmitter balance (Fride, 2002). Also to increase needed transmitters or to utilize existing transmitters as an alternate signaling mechanism. The increase in dopamine with cannabis is not made by dopamine cells as with drugs of abuse (Chapter 2). This can actually kick start our own malfunctioning endocannbinoid system by increasing Anadamide, leaving a lasting but imperceptible effect of well being.
CB1 Blockers/Dopamine/Schizophrenia

CB1 antagonist medications are a similar model of the ECS and antipsychotics that are dopamine receptor blockers and represent one half of the ying and yang of cannabis as a partial agonist. Different cannabinoids have different effects as well as individuals have different genetics or physical attributes including transmitters. Antagonists drugs that block CB1 such as Rimombant have shown to provoke anxiety and depression (Viveros, Marco & File, 2006). Pure THC therapeutics such as Marinol and acute, naïve, exposure to cannabis and some high THC cannabis genetic strains can provoke anxiety and pain with Gs proteins, stimulation of adenylate cyclase, and overall CB1 and Anadamide antagonism by THC as suspect..

Although blockers can be therapeutic in addictions, cannabis itself has this effect through its down and up regulation properties, as dopamine is blocked in the striatum and retina, yet released in the nucleus accumbens (Guy, Whittle & Robson, 2004, p.106). Excitatory glutamate inhibition by cannabis is said to be the reason that dopamine is released by GABA into the ventral tegmental area to then inhibit dopamine which then releases acetylcholine in the prefrontal cortex (Guy, Whittle & Robson, 2004, p.107). Chronic exposure to THC desensitizes CB1 receptors (Romero et al., 1998). As chronic exposure to SSRI drugs down regulate HT3 serotonin receptors.

CBD releases endocannabinoids 2AG. CBD is a cannabinoid that is nonpsychoactive yet is still sedating and increases dopamine, mediates THC and anxiety, kills cancer, is neuroprotective, and is anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, an SSRI and NE uptake inhibitor (Guy et al, 2004,p.90-92)). It can also attach to VR1 receptors and is anti-psychotic (p.168).
Dopamine

Narcan cannot block the effects of THC and does not affect narcotic mu or delta, rather cannabis is a k opiod agonist and some effects can be blocked with kappa antagonists, and is not by muscarinic or alpha2 adrenergic stimulant pathways (Howlett, 1995). As described earlier opiod receptors are coupled with g-proteins. However in morphine withdrawal opiod receptors are down regulated, but with cannabis they are unregulated (Cichewicz et al., 2001) making an argument for cannabis therapeutics as withdrawal management or harm reduction of opiates yet still modulate analgesia.

CB1 receptors are absent in the nerve terminals in dopaminergic fibers in the ventral tegemental area that projects to the nucleus accumbens which is the traditional model of the reward pathway in addiction (Cheer, 2004)(Schilcker & Kathmann, 2001), although dopamine is increased in these areas, and GABA is the alternate dopamine stimulating mechanism that cannabis follows. THC and addiction claims are controversial. Other studies such as Abood and Martin criticize rat dopamine findings that are “confined to "one strain of rat" and its application "to human abuse is tentative at best." (Abood and Martin, 1992) This conclusion is also reported by the Office of Technology Assessment, which attributes the finding to an in-bred quality specific to Lewis Rats. (US Congress OTA, 1993)” (Gettman, 1997). The same author notes that withdrawal is related to NE in the locus coeruleus and not to dopamine, and that THC dependence is less than nicotine or alcohol. Alcohol and tobacco are associated with depression and brain atrophy, cannabis is not unless used as a coping mechanism (Green & Ritter, 2000).

The question to be asked is, what if we have a dopamine deficient system that increases susceptibility of addiction, or an endocannabinoids deficient system that fails to maintain this tone, to produce Anadamide, to increase or decrease dopamine levels? One CB1 genetic mutation is associated with schizophrenia (Guy et al., 2004, p.92), and these areas are shown to be damaged with nicotine, alcohol or opiate use. Cannabis is known for its neuroprotection via glutamate toxicity blocking (unique) and neuroregenetive properties (of the receptor CB1 as does SSRI drugs to serotonin receptors).

Dopamine is another inhibitory neurotransmitter. Dopamine is needed as the pharmaceutical Wilburton is a dopamine agonist and antidepressant used for smoking cessation. Dopamine is a part of the constituents of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine needed for antidepressants and is common in combination SSRI drugs. Dopamine neurons often refire with an added serotonin. Herbal supplements such as L-Tyrosine or smoking nicotine increase dopamine and norepinephrine and are not closely linked with schizophrenia. Psychiatry is now evolving to discourage nicotine as it interferes with some pharmaceutical antipsychotics. However dopamine blockers also can suppress serotonin as dopamine receptors refire serotonin when saturated.

However a very small percentage of people with mental illnesses are at risk of psychosis with cannabis use but the exception proves the rule and many types are treated by cannabis. CBD, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid is shown to be anti-anxiety and antipsychotic in its effects (Grotenherman, 2006) (Guy et al, 2004, p.184, p237), which can mitigate pure THC preps.

Withdrawal or short acute symptoms can be managed safely, and is shorter and more gradual than accepted coffee or nicotine, and generally require no medication as treatment. Its low toxicity presents a novel therapeutic and safe profile of side effects (American Medical Assn, position paper, 2008).
ACH

Acetylcholine is a target of atypical antipsychotics and ant-spasmodic drugs and anti-cholinergic effects in the central nervous system. Release of this neurotransmitter at the peripheral level blocks to help control spasms. Acetylcholine is needed for Anadamide release which is potentiated by THC using gi/go proteins. Ach is blocked by cannabis in copious areas of the brain such as hippocampus postsynaptically (Schlicker & Kathman, 2001) but is also released in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (Guy, Whittle & Robson, 2004, p.106).

For more understanding of neurotransmitters and where they are generally blocked or released in specific brain areas and parts of the nerve cell, see upcoming graph “Cannabis and neurotransmitters in the CNS”.

Special Thanks to research partner John Berfelo & Bryan Krumm RN, John Gettman.
References:


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#51 Dragon 420

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Posted 30 April 2009 - 06:55 AM

The Endocannabinoid System
http://www.greencros...rch_endocan.php

Homeostasis is a property of living organisms that regulates the internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition. The same term applies to the cells that make up living things. Each healthy cell in your body is attempting to maintain a homeostatic state, balancing itself, internally, against the environment, without. It is becoming clear that the human body's own THC-like molecules, (ananamide, 2-AG), their binding receptors, plus the enzymes involved in their synthesis and breakdown, together called the endocannabinoid system, are key in maintaining cell homeostasis. The body's biochemical balancing act...

First discovered in the early 1990's the endocannabinoid system may well turn out to be one of the biggest medical discoveries since DNA. It will certainly be bigger than the discovery of the opiate system (in mid 1970's), since the receptors for the endocannabinoids are so incredibly abundant and prolific throughout humans affecting so many of its systems including nervous, digestive, immune, reproductive, respiratory, and more. As a result of playing a role in modulating the cellular events of these systems, plus illnesses arising out of them, discovery will lead to the development of many new pharmaceutical drugs. Far more than the opiate system, that acts only within the central nervous system, with only pain relief as its major efficacy. Enough new drugs, perhaps, to give pharma its second wind...

Most of what is know of the endocannabinoids was learned from experiments on nervous tissue, the result, no doubt, because of the psychoactive properties of the cannabis plant and the discovery of tetrahydrocannabinol in 1965. This, in turn, led to numerous animal experiments elucidating the biochemistry of the receptor system, that demonstrated efficacies for pain, inflammation, mood and appetite, to name a few. Primarily in this tissue was found what is termed the CB1 receptor, coupled to an already somewhat well characterized G-protein. But this receptor is unlike others previously found in that it was upstream of usual receptor sites. Previously receptors (opiate, glutamate and cholinergic) were found on what's called the post-synaptic part of a nerve junction. The CB1 receptor, however, exists at the opposite side of this junction, termed the pre-synapse. “Up the sleeve a bit.” Here it sends what are termed retrograde signals to the nerve cell membrane, the usual overall effect being down-regulation of neuro-transmitter release from the cell.



Reading the list of chemical messengers that are down regulated, including dopamine, epinephrine and serotonin, forces the question of how one could do anything; walk, talk, indeed, think at all, after, for example a deep “bong hit.” But down regulation of neuro-transmission is a huge over simplification of the issue. Firstly, turning down epinephrine, will slow things, to be sure, but down regulating an inhibitory neurotransmitter, could turn things up. Point being, we're dealing with nervous systems, the human's being the most complex, highly organized on the planet. So that over-all down regulation of neuro-transmission may not appear as bad as it sounds.



Interestingly, a precursor to ananamide, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a well-characterized phospholipid and important nutrient found in many foods with particularly high concentrations in Soy, eggs and animal brains. Also important to note that this key phospholipid is rarely found as a supplement although its two siblings, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine (PS), are. A fourth important phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol (PI) is also difficult to find as a supplement. Why PE is so scarce is of concern, since normal dietary sources, particularly with modern Western diets, do not always provide sufficient amounts of this nutrient.

Being a major precursor to the body's own THC, PE is borrowed from the cell membrane in a time of need, to manufacture, via an enzyme called transacylase, N-acyl- phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE), subsequently, a multitude of phospholipases cleave NAPE to ananamide. Note that a common use for supplementing with PE is for the treatment of ADHD. Now, lets put this together. Given a shortage of PE we experience symptoms of ADHD, supplementing the symptoms decrease. We can draw from this that since PE is both a membrane lipid plus the precursor to a major neurotransmitter, ananamide, that supplementing reduces ADHD, that ananamide plays a role in ADHD. Furthermore, it is becoming apparent, through work at the Green Cross and with other researchers studying the effects of cannabis on this illness is that cannabis helps improve concentration, mental alertness and focus. Tying it up, supplementing the endocannabinoid system either with PE to make up the body's own THC or by administering THC itself to top up what's missing, will help people with ADHD.

One example of the knowledge that has been gained since the endocannabinoid system was discovered and how it is being applied. And this is only one type of receptor associated with this system.

There is a second set of known cannabinoid receptors called CB2. These receptors tend to be found outside the central nervous system, often on immune cells. One, critically important aspect of CB2 receptor binding is the release of cytokines from immune cells. These are small proteins that serve a variety of immune functions, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and, importantly, they play a role in chronic pain.

Endocannabinoids are cell regulators. Balancing, protecting and keeping in order, with an over-all effect of down-regulation of neuro-transmission, quieting, slowing and moving away from inflammation. As a result of the enormous ubiquity of the receptors: (Cannabinoid receptors are the most abundant binding sites in the human brain.) The discovery of this system will open new doors to understanding our biochemistry and may well prove to be the most important medical discovery of the last century.

A. Paul Hornby, Ph.D.

September 7, 2008

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#52 Dragon 420

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Posted 30 April 2009 - 06:57 AM

Scientific Research at the Green Cross
http://www.greencros...rg/research.php

For the past two years, since opening its doors, the Green Cross Society has been conducting scientific research. Under the direction of Dr. Paul Hornby our research department has made some interesting discoveries.

During this time, we have followed the progress of a number of individuals using cannabis therapeutically for various ailments. These include chronic pain, Multiple sclerosis and epilepsy. Persons involved in these case studies were tracked for one year, while monitoring their symptoms, dietary habits, cannabis and prescription drug use, to name a few of the accumulated data parameters.

By accumulating this data we were able to draw conclusion on cannabis efficacy (the desired effects), dosage and side effects. We have written to scientific papers, one for chronic pain and the second for MS, both of which have been submitted to a case report medical journal for publication. The study on epilepsy continues. The journal that will be publishing the documents is read by physician's worldwide.

Both of these papers describe how standardized natural product cannabis (the herbal medicine) is effective in treating chronic pain and the symptoms of multiple sclerosis, plus the dosages required to achieve sufficient relief and the apparent lack of unwanted side effects.

The person followed in the chronic pain study had suffered an on-the-job injury leaving him with multiple traumas to head, spine and limbs. Subsequent surgeries, physiotherapy and prescription medications had left him, in his own words “as a living dead person.” Over the course of the study year he was able to achieve a level of pain management, using natural product cannabis, plus some other natural supplements, where a significantly better quality of life was achieved. Doing this required, relatively high dosages of THC (approximately 500 mg per day) and this finding, never calculated before, is the first time accurate doses of natural cannabis have been determined. This information, is vital to Health Canada 's MMAR program since it is the only time that the required dosages of cannabis have been calculated and as it turns out are much higher than those recommended by the government institute.



Further to this observation and one that is made time and time again at the Society is that persons with Celtic genealogy (Scottish, Irish or Welsh) have a 3 to 5 times higher tolerance to cannabis than a person from middle European or Asian extract. Our chronic pain subject has a Scottish mother. Some, albeit scant, research on this topic suggests that Celts require higher doses of all analgesics to achieve pain relief.However, at this point, this phenomenon remains an observation and will require more data to prove.

Interestingly, our MS subject required more than Health Canada 's recommended dosage too. This person who had been with progressive MS for more than twenty years had tried a series of pharmaceutical preparations to little or no avail. However, by using standardized cannabis capsules, plus some smoke able product, she was able to achieve, once again, a quality of life far superior to her past. From being nearly permanently immobile she is now able to go for walks and do some gardening. This study has also been chronicled and submitted for peer-reviewed publication.



These are just a few of the successes that we observe daily at the Green Cross.

The efficacy of natural cannabis medicine is nothing but profound!

We believe that in twenty years people will look back at the last century and realize that the discovery of the receptors for THC and the endocannabinoid system was the biggest medical find of that century next to the discovery of DNA. And why is it such a huge find? Because the endocannabinoids affect everything. There are receptors for THC in virtually every human system, including digestive, reproductive, respiratory and nervous. Here they regulate these systems to maintain homeostasis or balance allowing cell communication, protection and re-generation.

Knowing the mechanism of endocannabinoid action will lead to the discovery of many new drugs (the pharmaceutical industry has more than 100 already), plus increase our understanding of human physiology enormously.

The role natural product cannabis will play in future of human health is largely dependent on what institutions like the Green Cross do with their findings and how it is presented to the public. Over the past few decades there has been an ever growing acceptance of natural medicines, and indeed, of cannabis. Although it has been given a very bad wrap for many years, the discovery of the endocannabinoid system can only lead to more and more public and medical acceptance.

The Green Cross Society, by combining high technology to herbal medicine is bridging a gap that has existed for as long as the pharmaceutical industry. Never before has high tech science and expertise been applied to herbal therapeutics as the Green Cross is doing, setting it apart from other compassion clubs and dispensaries in N. America and the world.

It is our philosophy that as a result of the ubiquitous nature, the down-regulation of neurotransmission, and the overall regulatory role of the endocannabinoid system, which is indeed holistic in nature will bring about a shift in medical and pharmaceutical thinking away from reductionism and a single molecule (magic bullet) approach to one that encompasses the whole and the complexity of biology.

Daily, at the Green Cross we observe people successfully managing the symptoms of chronic pain, depression, anxiety, inflammation, arthritis, bowel disease, Hepatitis C and HIV medicine. To name a few… The overall efficacies of cannabis are so immense that we have barely scratched the surface of what it can do. By continuing to research the therapeutic properties of natural product cannabis, in time, we will have developed medicines to specifically treat a very large range of symptoms. Encouraging too, is that in all the time we have been working with people using cannabis we observe few adverse or unwanted side effects.

Most frequently unwanted side effects occur through overdose. Normally this happens as a result of ingesting un-standardized baked goods (e.g. Brownies) or by incorrect strain selection. At the Green Cross we post, on the menu board, the levels of cannabinoid in all of our products. In this way members know before ingestion exactly how much THC and the ratios of other major cannabinoids that they're administering.

In closing, a major observation made at the Society, yet one that is difficult to study, is the tremendous therapeutic benefit of member/member interaction. Since all of our members are disabled their shared stories of methods and means of recovery and dealing with their illness is our greatest efficacy. We are living in a time of enormous change for man and the world and one of medical revolution. We believe that through scientific study, sharing our successes with the public and by maintaining a true and unwavering course we will one day see natural cannabis as a mainstream and commonly utilized medicine.

A. Paul Hornby, Ph.D.

September 20, 2008

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#53 Ted Smith

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Posted 30 April 2009 - 09:14 AM

"Also known, but not displayed on the label is the amount of cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) in each cap."

I do not mean to be critical, but why not display the CBD and CBN amounts?

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#54 Buddha

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Posted 30 April 2009 - 01:13 PM

OH MY GOD!!!!!

I am just a guy who needs Medical Marijuana and guidance with my chronic pain and Arthritis from the Compassion Clubs.

In My Humble Opinion...All this bickering and competing makes me think everyones out to just make a buck off us Medical Marijuana users. If I am having thoughts of this nature just think what a Crown Prosecutor would think if they read this. Granted, Compassion Clubs need to make money to supply the services and to continue helping the sick. But you guys are acting like a bunch of children. You are seriously undermining my faith in Compassion Clubs for the future...GROW UP!!!

I agree with Bree...Jody Kill This Embarrassment And Childness.

As the leaders in the Medical Marijuana movement...SHAME ON YOU ALL!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Buddha

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"If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough"-Albert Einstein

#55 Gatekeeper

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Posted 06 September 2009 - 08:53 PM

I'm confused is the Green Cross on Kingsway connected to The Dispensary on Hastings St in Vancouver?

From the thread it sounds like Dana Larsen (Former Editor of Cannabis Culture Magazine) is a major player in both compassion clubs. How does Paul Hornby fit into all of this as it seems both clubs sell his budder.

So far, no one has answered Mr. Hornby's claim that the Green Cross Society of BC has a federal "Licensed Dealer" license to produce, import, export, transport, sell & processed marihuana products. Also staff must be qualified i.e. trained in chemistry and pharmacology.

Has anyone seen the Green Cross's Licensed Dealer License?
Are the staff properly trained and qualified per Section 53?

Also if you have a Dealers License you are required by law to have on site a complete list of all sources of where you obtained your cannabis and where it went upon request from a Government of Canada representative. Can the Green Cross produce these documents since they claim to be a "legal dispensary"?

I'm not trying to cause trouble but when your making claims such as this at a world AIDS Conference you should have documentation to support the claims.

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#56 cannagirl420

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Posted 07 September 2009 - 07:06 AM

Hello,

The Dispensary on Hastings Street is directed by Dana Larsen and The Green Cross is a separate entity.

The Dispensary sells a product called Budder which IS NOT the same product as The Green Cross's Toffee.

Dr. Hornby does not work for The Dispensary.

It has been established here in the forums that The Green Cross has made error in their claims as they were confused about having a business license (that states they are selling cannabis). They are not required to have any training other than what they have decided upon themselves as they are not working for or with Health Canada.

They are independently running a club with their own guidelines, just like the rest of the Compassion Clubs are.

I hope this answers your questions .

peace,
cannagirl

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#57 Gatekeeper

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Posted 17 September 2009 - 11:35 PM

Once again
The Green Cross Society has an open door policy
Come on by ask for Paul Hunt the President ...
Mon-Fri 10am-8pm
Sat 11am-7pm and Sunday 12-4pm


Whenever I or other members have tried to take John B. (Dragon 410) up on his offer to come on down and look at the documents or talk to Paul Hunt or a Board members, no one is around that can help. It would seem the GCS may have an open door policy except when it come to backing up any claims staff and executive members make.

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#58 Gatekeeper

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Posted 17 September 2009 - 11:46 PM

Originally Posted By: W/O Reason



While we are on the subject of possibly false claims, The Green Cross membership numbers 4000.

We have a open door police so stop by and view the documents .

Our member ship is mostly from the BCCS.
I am a member of the BCCS,The Dispensary, VICS and the CBC plus the GCS.

Now about your issues around the GCS, have you brought up your concerns with the members rep ??
E-mail me , I am the members rep...
Peace
Dragon 420


Are you still the Members Rep Dragon 420?

I've emailed you about my concerns and to date and not received a straight answer.

For example, you still wont say who else sits on the Board of Directors of the Society with you if you are still the Members Rep.

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#59 Gatekeeper

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Posted 18 September 2009 - 12:25 AM

Scientific Research at the Green Cross
http://www.greencros...rg/research.php

For the past two years, since opening its doors, the Green Cross Society has been conducting scientific research. Under the direction of Dr. Paul Hornby.

During this time, we have followed the progress of a number of individuals using cannabis therapeutically for various ailments.

Persons involved in these case studies were tracked for one year, while monitoring their symptoms, dietary habits, cannabis and prescription drug use, to name a few of the accumulated data parameters.

By accumulating this data we were able to draw conclusion on cannabis efficacy (the desired effects), dosage and side effects. We have written to scientific papers, one for chronic pain and the second for MS, both of which have been submitted to a case report medical journal for publication. The study on epilepsy continues. The journal that will be publishing the documents is read by physician's worldwide.

Both of these papers describe how standardized natural product cannabis (the herbal medicine) is effective in treating chronic pain and the symptoms of multiple sclerosis, plus the dosages required to achieve sufficient relief and the apparent lack of unwanted side effects.

Never before has high tech science and expertise been applied to herbal therapeutics as the Green Cross is doing, setting it apart from other compassion clubs and dispensaries in N. America and the world.

A. Paul Hornby, Ph.D.

September 20, 2008


Since the GCS has an open door policy when can members have a look at all of these studies and research data.

The only research paper anyone at the Green Cross has been able to produce was published on PubMed. Since the study done on you and you had done research work prior to the study with one of the authors and are employed by the GCS to do their website most people would dismiss the study on ethics along.

Where can people find some other studies done by the Green Cross Research Depatment

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#60 Gatekeeper

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Posted 18 September 2009 - 12:33 AM


In My Humble Opinion...All this bickering and competing makes me think everyones out to just make a buck off us Medical Marijuana users. If I am having thoughts of this nature just think what a Crown Prosecutor would think if they read this. Granted, Compassion Clubs need to make money to supply the services and to continue helping the sick.


Most Cannabis Clubs are run properly and follow the rules and regulations for running a Society. Unfortuantely, Greed clouds many peoples vision when it comes to Medicinal Cannabis.
The Shady characters know we are in a weakened state and take advantage of us. The bickering is more a case of holding society executives accountable for their actions. It is also about Society Members standing up and pointing out things can could be changed to improve the Society for all members not just the few as seems to be the case now.

The truth should never be taken as an insult.

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