notsofasteddie

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  1. Dried cannabis price scan, Jan 11 2017 A detailed ACMPR price comparison from data taken on January 11th. By Brad Martin January 16, 2017 Kade's Kush Maricann Cannabinoid content and the price of medical cannabis in Canada vary with licensed producer, location of production, and production method. We track cannabinoid content and pricing data for all available dried cannabis flowers and milled blends to understand how these prices change over time, and to highlight offerings with the best value. The data for this summary was taken January 11th 2017 (Delta 9 figures January 10 current). Publicly available information on producer websites and newsletters was logged for all available dried cannabis flower and blends in the ACMPR. THC and CBD content and non-compassionate price were logged for each strain and, in the cases where ranges of cannabinoids were given, midpoint averages were used. For the producers offering volume discounts, we’ve used the cost for the smallest size available. In cases where the same strains were offered by two different providers, and for strains that were available in whole flower and blended form, data was logged for each instance. All flower and blended dried cannabis offerings were categorized according to cannabinoid content. Offerings with ratios of 1.4+ THC:CBD were considered THC offerings. Those with 1.4-0.3 THC:CBD were considered 1:1 offerings, while the remainder (<0.3 THC:CBD) were considered CBD offerings. There were 161 blends and flowers available from the 21 Licensed Producers in the ACMPR, up from 155 offerings from December 16 2016. The average number of selections per producer is 7 — no change from last month. Most producers carried at least 5 THC offerings, some doubled this average (Hydropothecary and Whistler) while others had one (Aurora, Mettrum) or none (Tweed). Five percent of strains had significant amounts of CBD and negligible amounts of CBD, offered from a third of the producers (Aphria, Aurora, Bedrocan, CanniMed, Canntrust, Hydropothecary, MedReleaf and Tweed). On average, each producer carried a 1:1 strain with significant amounts of THC and CBD, while some had as high as 3 choices (AB Cann, Canna Farms, Hydropothecary, MariCann and Tweed). Hydropothecary has several new offerings included in the scan this week. Notably, they offer a decarboxylated cannabis product that has been milled and prepared for oral consumption via the provided capsules. Of the 161 currently available offerings, 123 of them (76%) contained significant amounts of THC to CBD. As noted above, 8 of the 161 (5.0%) were found to have significant amounts of CBD with negligible amounts of CBD. The remaining 19% were found to be 1:1 offerings with comparable cannabinoid content. The average price per gram for a gram of cannabis in the ACMPR was found to be $9.09, up $0.07 from our December 16 2016 scan. Looking at price with respect to cannabinoid content, the average prices for 100mg of THC rose slightly from $5.42 to $5.72. Per producer, prices ranged from $3.45 to $9.50 per 100 mg, with Redecan, Aurora and Bedrocan showing lowest averages for 100mg of THC. This month, 24% of THC offerings (30 of the 123 offerings) claimed above 20% THC. The average THC content for THC offerings was 17%. Prices are typically higher for CBD strains: the average price of 100mg of CBD was $7.44 this month, down from $8.14 last month. Average prices per producer ranged from $4.21 to $10.34, with Aurora and CanniMed being the lowest cost providers. Cannabinoid prices from 1:1 offerings have also increased. For 100mg of THC/CBD from a 1:1 strain, the average price is $5.73, up from $5.47 last month. Producer averages ranged from $3.35 to $10.20, with Redecan showing the lowest average prices. This summary tracks cannabinoid content and price from around the ACMPR. Much of the data presented here is shown as a summarized producer average comprised of several offerings. For strain specific information, as well as information on each producer, check out Lift and read the reviews in the review section. lift
  2. A new era for cannabis clubs in Spain by Martín Barriuso 13/01/2017 New Era Following the Supreme Court's judgements against cannabis clubs in 2015, ordinary courts have started interpreting them. Spain's major clubs, above all in Barcelona, appear to have their days numbered. However, increasingly more judges understand that small clubs fit in with the Law. A new era is dawning. In Spain, two rulings to the same effect by the Supreme Court establish jurisprudence and this doctrine must be applied by all of the lower courts. In the case of cannabis clubs, 2015 came to an end not with two, but three Supreme Court convictions. 2016 has been the year when these rulings have been interpreted and clarified, and despite the clubs with hundreds or thousands of partners having no place within the new legal framework, everything points to this associative phenomenon remaining in place for the time being. The first major strike against cannabis clubs in Spain was made by the Supreme Court on 7 September 2015. Members of the management board of Bilbao’s Ebers association were sentenced to eight months in prison – which they do not need to serve since it is their first offence – together with fines of €5,000 each. Two more collaborating partners were sentenced to three months in prison each. The court took into account the ambiguity of Spanish law on cannabis and understood the defendants may have had doubts regarding the legality of what they were doing, which prevented the sentence being greater and spared them from prison. The first pronouncement was that “cultivation and organised, institutionalised distribution of cannabis, on a long-term basis, among a collective consisting of 290 persons constituting an Association open to new members” is a drug-trafficking crime. The second strike, which established case law, arrived in December, when the board of Barcelona’s Three Monkeys association was handed the same sentence of eight months in prison, although without fines, after not having clearly established the quantity of cannabis. And before the year came to an end, the heftiest strike fell: the Pannagh judgement, in which members of the board, including myself, were sentenced to one year and eight months in prison – which we also do not have to serve – and each to a fine of €250,000. At present, the three judgements are being appealed before the Constitutional Court, with the first two – those of Ebers and Three Monkeys – having been declared admissible. Consequently, the Constitutional Court has already decided to pass judgement on the question of clubs, although we will most likely have to wait several more years before its decision is announced. With these rulings, the Supreme Court made its desire to end Spain’s Cannabis Social Clubs phenomenon clear. Although in the Ebers case five of the 15 members of the Chamber cast private votes, supporting acquittal instead of conviction, they made it clear while doing so that, in any event, clubs such as Ebers should not be legal. The message, in particular following the Pannagh case, was clear: after the three rulings, it is no longer possible to allege a legal vacuum, meaning the next people who dare to organise a cannabis club of this size and scope will go to prison and pay astronomical fines. Adapting to hard times The outcome of these rulings was cataclysmic. Certain associations – frightened by the new situation – closed their doors, in some cases for good, while others were investigated by the police, which resulted in arrests, warnings and the closure of venues. However, not all associations opted to close or were investigated. Many clubs have started to discuss how to adapt to the new reality. They consulted with their lawyers and held members’ meetings to explore how to move forward. At the end of the day, the Supreme Court’s rulings rejected the possibility of clubs with hundreds of members, although at the same time, they accepted that so-called “shared cultivation” might not be a criminal matter; something which had not been explicitly recognised before. Certain associations opted to split up into smaller groups and operate even more horizontally, meaning that the club’s cultivation is truly shared. Others updated their member lists, keeping only the real ones. Up until then, the trend was to have many members to justify cultivation; now, it’s about having few members and keeping them well informed of what’s happening, in order to avoid a criminal conviction insofar as is possible. Another regular measure has been to close the membership quota and not allow new members unless somebody drops out. Shifts involving all of the members have also been established so that the cultivation process is taken care of and to prevent certain members from being deemed drug dealers supplying to the others. Nevertheless, not all of the associations have chosen this route. There are quite a few people, such as the most of the members of the CATFAC federation (Catalan section of the Cannabis Association Federation), who are resisting the shift towards adaptation and openly calling for some rulings they consider unjust to be disobeyed. For these associations, their Codes of Good Practice, accepted by institutions in certain cases, continue to be a valid reference. The debate is still open and the FAC is to hold a general assembly in January to decide on the strategy to follow. The Supreme Court no longer wants to convict At the same time as associations were attempting to adapt to the new reality, the Supreme Court continued to pass sentences concerning cannabis clubs. The most striking thing is that following the harsh verdict sentence against Pannagh, no one else has again been convicted for being in charge of a club. It is as if the warning shot had already been fired and that no more blood needed to be shed. The ’mistake of law’ argument – in other words, the possibility that the defendants were unaware they were committing a crime due to the legal ambiguity – was used to achieve an acquittal, as in the case of the La María de Gracia club, or to return the case to the Provincial Court and have a new judgement passed, as happened with the La Línea Verde. The judgement on the La María de Gracia club was passed by the Chamber of the Supreme Court, which mostly consisted of magistrates who voted against the Ebers conviction. The division among the judges thus appears to be clear. In fact, attention has been drawn to the fact that in certain phrases of the last few judgements, there are statements that appear to be directed at supporting a possible appeal before the Constitutional Court. It is as if certain Supreme Court judges were unclear about things and wanted someone higher up to clarify them. Small is beautiful (and legal) While the Supreme Court continued to pass new judgements on cannabis clubs, the first three rulings (i.e. on Ebers, Three Monkeys and Pannagh) were already being applied by the different lower-ranking courts. The result of their application clearly shows two distinct tendencies: harsh punishments for major clubs used as a front and a withdrawal of the accusation in the case of smaller associations. Among the major clubs, the highest-profile case has been that of La Mesa Barcelona. The police seized around 2,400 cannabis plants and investigated the association. The founders, two Dutch citizens, were accused of drug trafficking and unlawful association. No members testified to exonerate the managers and that fact, together with other circumstances, led the Court of Barcelona to sentence them to five years in prison each (in this case, they will have to serve that time because the sentence is more than two years) for using the association, which lacked “regular associative activity,” as a “mere smokescreen” for whitewashing trafficking activities. In other words, having a registered association is not enough; you also have to demonstrate that it operates as such. On the extreme opposite side, we have associations that, after having been investigated, are able to continue their activities. In the Basque Country, the historic Atxurra succeeded in having a case against it dropped upon demonstrating they were a true association, the small number of members and the proportion between the number of members and the plants cultivated for them. There was another similar case in Galicia, when a case brought against a 36-member association was closed upon the understanding that it fits within the Supreme Court’s case law. There have also been similar cases in Valencia and the Balearics. Another interesting case is that of La Cannameña, in Extremadura, which was investigated when it presented its articles of association for registration. La Cannameña showed that its articles of association openly mention cultivating cannabis for it members. Following the investigation by the police and the public prosecutor, they were allowed to register and operate in accordance with those same articles of association, including where they discuss cultivation. In other words, the public prosecutor deems cultivating cannabis within the framework of an association of a few dozen members legal and authorises them to continue their activities, thus setting a historic precedent. It could be said that while the Supreme Court has closed a major door, intentionally or not it has, in turn, opened a smaller one. The large clubs with thousands of members and a commercial structure seem condemned to disappear, and while there are still quite a few open, it appears to be only a matter of time before they close their doors as the police investigate. On the other hand, we have the small clubs that are horizontal and participative in nature – i.e. those closest to the original cannabis club idea. These clubs are going to be able to continue, although in the short term it is most likely some will still be harassed and pressurised by the police. Meanwhile, if the line of interpretation opened with Atxurra or La Cannameña becomes common practice, small cultivation collectives have a promising future. If they succeed in having their right to grow recognised, they will be safeguarded against possible future convictions and it will be possible to continue opening cannabis clubs in Spain. While they won’t be as large or as chic as the commercial clubs that burgeoned between 2010 and 2015, they will allow thousands of people to supply themselves with cannabis outside of the black market. It may just indeed be true that when one door closes, another opens. Other clubs will have to slim down substantially to be able to pass through that newly opened door, but this is good news in a country where the CSC model is hopelessly bloated. sensiseeds blog
  3. 11 key findings from one of the most comprehensive reports ever on the health effects of marijuana Kevin Loria Jan. 12, 2017 Shutterstock The change in attitudes toward cannabis and in legal access to marijuana around the US over the past several years is staggering. As of last fall, 57% of adults in the US said they thought marijuana should be legal, with only 37% taking the opposing view — which is essentially a reversal of the opinions held a decade ago. And after November's elections, 20% of Americans live in a state that has voted to legalize recreational use. Far more live in states with some access to medical marijuana. But this obscures a crucial fact: From a scientific perspective, there's still a ton we don't know about cannabis. A massive report released today by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine gives one of the most comprehensive looks — and certainly the most up-to-date — at exactly what we know about the science of cannabis. The committee behind the report, representing top universities around the country, considered more than 10,000 studies for its analysis, from which it was able to draw nearly 100 conclusions. In large part, the report reveals how much we still have to learn, but it's still surprising to see how much we know about certain health effects of cannabis. This summation was sorely needed, as is more research on the topic. "The policy has outpaced science, and it's really too bad," Staci Gruber, an associate professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and director of the Marijuana Investigations for Neuroscientific Discovery program at McLean Hospital, told Business Insider in an interview last week, several days before we saw the report. "As a scientist, I think the goal is always to try very hard to get to the findings and to be able to disseminate those findings so that we can make good decisions grounded in science," Gruber said. Cannabis "has been around for thousands of years; it's not like we just made it in a lab." Having good research is essential so that we know "how best we can use it, what are the safest ways, and what are the real risks," she added. Surprising findings on cancer, mental health, and more Before we dive into the findings, there are two quick things to keep in mind. First, the language in the report is designed to say exactly how much we know — and don't know — about a certain effect. Terms like "conclusive evidence" mean we have enough data to make a firm conclusion; terms like "limited evidence" mean there's still significant uncertainty, even if there are good studies supporting an idea; and different degrees of certainty fall between these levels. For many things, there's still insufficient data to really say anything positive or negative about cannabis. A variety of medicinal marijuana buds in jars are pictured at Los Angeles Patients & Caregivers Group dispensary in West Hollywood, California U.S., October 18, 2016. REUTERS/Mario Anzuoni/File Photo Thomson Reuters Second, context is important. Many of these findings are meant as summations of fact, not endorsements or condemnations. For example, the report found evidence that driving while high increased the risk of an accident. But the report also notes that certain studies have found lower crash rates after the introduction of medical cannabis to an area. It's possible that cannabis makes driving more dangerous and that the number of crashes could decrease after introduction if people take proper precautions. We'll work on providing context to these findings over the next few days but wanted to share some of the initial findings first. With that in mind, here are some of the most striking findings from the report: •There was conclusive or substantial evidence (the most definitive levels) that cannabis or cannabinoids, found in the marijuana plant, can be an effective treatment for chronic pain, according to the report, which is "by far the most common" reason people request medical marijuana. With similar certainty, they found that cannabis can help treat muscle spasms related to multiple sclerosis and can help prevent or treat nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy. •The authors found evidence that suggested that marijuana increased the risk of a driving crash. •They also found evidence that in states with legal access to marijuana, children were more likely to accidentally consume cannabis. We've looked at these numbers before and seen that the overall increases in risk are small — one study found that the rate of overall accidental ingestion among children went from 1.2 per 100,000 two years before legalization to 2.3 per 100,000 two years after legalization. There's still a far higher chance parents call poison control because of kids eating crayons or diaper cream, but it's still important to know that some increased risk could exist. •Perhaps surprisingly, the authors found moderate evidence (a pretty decent level of certainty and an indication that good data exists) that cannabis was not connected to any increased risk of the lung cancers or head and neck cancers associated with smoking. However, they did find some limited evidence suggesting that chronic or frequent users may have higher rates of a certain type of testicular cancer. •Connections to heart conditions were less clear. There's insufficient evidence to support or refute the idea that cannabis might increase the risk of a heart attack, though there was some limited evidence that smoking cannabis might be a trigger for a heart attack. •There was substantial evidence that regular marijuana smokers are more likely to experience chronic bronchitis and that stopping smoking was likely to improve these conditions. There's not enough evidence to say that that cannabis does or doesn't increase the risk for respiratory conditions like asthma. •There was limited evidence that smoking marijuana could have some anti-inflammatory effects. •Substantial evidence suggests a link between prenatal cannabis exposure (when a pregnant woman uses marijuana) and lower birth weight, and there was limited evidence suggesting that this use could increase pregnancy complications and increase the risk that a baby would have to spend time in the neonatal intensive care unit. •In terms of mental health, substantial evidence shows an increased risk of developing schizophrenia among frequent users, something that studies have shown is a particular concern for people at risk for schizophrenia in the first place. There was also moderate evidence that cannabis use is connected to a small increased risk for depression and an increased risk for social anxiety disorder. •Limited evidence showed a connection between cannabis use and impaired academic achievement, something that has been shown to be especially true for people who begin smoking regularly during adolescence (which has also been shown to increase the risk for problematic use). •One of the most interesting and perhaps most important conclusions of the report is that far more research on cannabis is needed. Importantly, in most cases, saying cannabis was connected to an increased risk doesn't mean marijuana use caused that risk. And it's hard to conduct research on marijuana right now. The report says that's largely because of regulatory barriers, including marijuana's Schedule I classification by the Drug Enforcement Administration and the fact that researchers often can't access the same sorts of marijuana that people actually use. Even in states where it's legal to buy marijuana, federal regulations prevent researchers from using that same product. Without the research, it's hard to say how policymakers should best support legalization efforts — to say how educational programs or mental health institutions should adapt to support any changes, for example. "If I had one wish, it would be that the policymakers really sat down with scientists and mental health practitioners" as they enact any of these new policies, Krista Lisdahl, an associate professor of psychology and director of the Brain Imaging and Neuropsychology Lab at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, told Business Insider in an interview shortly before we could review this report. It's important to know what works, what doesn't, and what needs to be studied more. This report does a lot to show what we've learned in recent years, but it also shows just how much more we need to learn. In studying cannabis, "we're not really after the good or the bad — we're after the truth," Gruber said. businessinsider
  4. Medical Marijuana Update

    Medical Marijuana Update by psmith, January 11, 2017 Medical marijuana bills are popping up all over the place, a federal bill to protect medical marijuana businesses from asset forfeiture has been filed, and more. National Last Thursday, a federal bill to protect medical marijuana businesses from asset forfeiture was filed. Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) filed House Resolution 331, which would shield medical marijuana-related conduct authorized by state law from federal asset forfeiture attempts. The bill has been referred to the House Judiciary and Energy and Commerce committees. Connecticut On Wednesday, a medical marijuana expansion hearing was scheduled. A panel of eight physician specialists will hear public testimony on expanding medical conditions covered by the state's medical marijuana law Wednesday. Patients are expected to ask the panel to expand the law to include conditions such as eczema, arthritis, and fibromyalgia. The panel will make a recommendation to the Consumer Protection Commissioner, who can then propose the change to a legislative oversight committee, which would make a final decision. The whole process could take a year or more. Indiana Last Friday, a medical marijuana bill was filed. State Sen. Karen Tallian (D-Indianapolis) has filed Senate Bill 255, which would allow patients with a specified list of conditions or "any persistent or chronic illness or condition" to use medical marijuana with a physician's recommendation. The measure would also create a statewide medical marijuana program. Tallian has introduced similar bills in past years that have gone nowhere. Minnesota On Monday, a key legislator filed a bill to block any new qualifying conditions. Longtime medical marijuana skeptic and former House Majority Leader Rep. Matt Dan (R-Dellwood) has filed a measure, House File 120, that would block the state health commissioner from adding new qualifying conditions to the state's medical marijuana law. It's a power that has been used sparingly -- "intractable pain" was added after a year's wait -- but Dean wants it used not at all. His bill would accomplish that by striking out the phrase "or any other medical condition or its treatment approved by the commissioner." Mississippi Last Friday, a medical marijuana bill was filed. Rep. Joel Bomgar (R-Madison) has filed House Bill 179, which would ensure that any "qualifying patient who possesses a valid registry identification card is not subject to arrest, prosecution, or penalty in any manner." The bill specifies a list of qualifying conditions, allow for caregivers for patients who can't grow their own, and allow for dispensaries. Patients could possess up to 2. 5 ounces of marijuana. Nebraska Last Friday, a state senator said she would file a medical marijuana bill this session. State Sen. Anna Wishart (D-Lincoln) says she will introduce a comprehensive medical marijuana bill this session. A similar measure came within three votes of advancing last year, but the measure would still face an uphill battle in the legislature and a probable veto from Gov. Pete Ricketts (R). New Mexico Last Friday, a medical marijuana expansion bill was filed. State Sen. Cisco McSorly (D-Albuquerque) has filed Senate Bill 8, which would more than double the amount of medical marijuana licensed producers can grow in the state and expand the amount of marijuana that patients could possess. "This bill will guarantee there is an adequate supply of marijuana for our patients," McSorley said. South Carolina On Tuesday, a medical marijuana bill was filed. State Sen. Tom Davis (R-Beaufort) and state Rep. Peter McCoy (R-Charleston) Tuesday filed identical versions of the South Carolina Compassionate Care Act (Senate Bill 212) at the statehouse. The bill would allow qualifying patients with debilitating medical conditions and a recommendation from their doctor to use medical cannabis. Wisconsin Last Thursday, prospects for passage of a CBD bill brightened after a key legislator waived objections. Legislation to allow the use of CBD cannabis oil could pass this year after key opponents last year said they would get out of the way this year. The Assembly passed a CBD bill last year, only to see it derailed in the Senate by opposition from three Senate Republicans, Leah Vukmir, Duey Stroebel, and Mary Lazich. Vukmir now says she will support a CBD bill, Stroebel is staying silent, and Lazich is gone. The bill is expected to be introduced later this month. [For extensive information about the medical marijuana debate, presented in a neutral format, visit MedicalMarijuana.ProCon.org.] stopthedrugwar
  5. I made my son cannabis cookies. They changed his life. By Marie Myung-Ok Lee January 6, 2017 Marie Myung-Ok Lee, with her husband and their son at age 12. (Photo by Dean Jacoby ) It took me awhile to perfect the cookie recipe. I experimented with ingredients: Blueberry, Strawberry, Sour Diesel, White Widow, Bubba Kush, AK-47 — all strains of cannabis, which I stored, mixed with glycerin, in meticulously labeled jars on a kitchen shelf. After the cookies finished baking, I’d taste a few crumbs and annotate the effects in a notebook. Often, I felt woozy. One variation put me to sleep. When I had convinced myself that a batch was okay, I’d give a cookie to my 9-year-old son. At the time he was consumed by violent rages. He would bang his head, scream for hours and literally eat his shirts. At dinnertime, he threw his plates so forcefully that there was food stuck on the ceiling. He would punch and scratch himself and others, such that people would look at the red streaks on our bodies and ask us, gingerly, if we had cats. But when I got the cookies right, he calmed down. His aggressions became less ferocious and less frequent. Mealtimes became less fraught. He was able to maintain enough self-composure that he even learned to ride a bike — despite every expert telling us it would never happen. I realize that some people may look askance at parents who keep pot in the house, let alone conduct semi-legal medical experiments on their children. But it’s time we reexamine the cultural and legal restrictions we put on cannabis, especially as it pertains to kids. My son’s life has changed because of it. Since he was an infant, I’d watched my son struggle. At 18 months, he underwent two major spinal-cord tumor surgeries, only weeks apart, and was immobilized in a cast for a year. After that, the violent rages began — sometimes as many as 300 in a day. My husband and I didn’t understand why he acted this way until he was diagnosed at age 3 with a gut disease that, we learned, left him in pain for most of the day, as well as severe autism that made it difficult for him to express himself or ask for relief. We tried all kinds of treatments, including applied behavior analysis (the supposed gold standard in autism therapy), occupational therapy, horse therapy and auditory integration. We even got him a session with Soma Mukhopadhyay, a celebrity in the autism world, whose Rapid Prompting Method has helped some people learn how to communicate by pointing instead of vocalizing. By the time he was 5, our son was in a special school and on a hypoallergenic diet. His gastroenterologist prescribed powerful anti-inflammatories, which left him vulnerable to violent episodes triggered by, say, hearing a dog bark 100 feet away, but stopped the worst head-banging: on our cast-iron tub. Then, a couple of years later, the medication stopped working. And his aggressions exploded. His school insisted he see a psychiatrist, who recommended the drug Risperdal to treat his “autistic irritability.” I was reluctant. Adults taking Risperdal often refer to it as a “chemical lobotomy.” In kids, there are also reports of alarming weight gain and sleepiness. Additionally, back then I could find only one study on the medication’s use in children with autism. It tracked 49 children who took the drug for eight weeks to six months — hardly long term — and showed uneven results on behavior, with side effects including an average weight gain of six pounds in the eight-week period, elevated insulin levels and tremors. My husband said he’d rather our son attack us every day than suffer through that. But the school was calling us weekly, demanding that something change. I was desperate and frantic. It seemed like we’d run out of options. Then I happened upon a paragraph in Michael Pollan’s “The Botany of Desire.” Pollan argued that cannabis is great for pain relief and can slow short-term memory formation. Might this, I wondered, help mitigate my son’s pain and the onslaught of sensory input that he struggled to process? To research this question, I dropped in on a medical-marijuana patient group that met at Brown University, where I taught. The collection of severely ill patients couldn’t have been further from the giddy stoner convention I’d imagined. One after another spoke of the healing impacts of cannabis. A young man with crippling anxiety and Tourette’s syndrome said a slew of psychiatric drugs couldn’t quell his outbursts, but pot did. It wasn’t a cure. But it helped. I came away convinced that marijuana was worth a try. After weeks of back and forth, my son’s neurologist agreed. And so, at age 9, my son became the youngest person with a medical-marijuana license in Rhode Island. We found a certified supplier. Then, we got busy figuring out which type of marijuana would best work for him and how to get him to ingest it. The first days were overwhelming. The grower would show up with six or more strains. And I was terrified of doing something wrong. But Lester Grinspoon, a psychiatrist and professor at Harvard Medical School who has been researching cannabis since the 1960s, reassured me that the worst we could do was make our son fall asleep. Of course, paranoia is another cliched side effect of marijuana, but Columbia University neuroscientist Carl Hart, who has administered marijuana to thousands of research subjects, notes that paranoia wears off within hours. Indeed, cannabis is one of the few substances on earth that can’t kill you. It was classified as a Schedule 1 drug under the 1970 Controlled Substances Act, suggesting the potential for abuse, a concern about safety and the absence of an accepted medical use. But subsequent research has shown that cannabis is not physically addictive, as many illicit drugs are, and that it could make life better for people with a range of ailments, such as Tourette’s, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, glaucoma, spasticity, Huntington’s disease, chronic pain and intractable epilepsy. And the safety concerns have turned out to be unfounded. “Nearly all medicines have toxic, potentially lethal effects,” a Drug Enforcement Administration administrative judge wrote in 1988. “But marijuana is not such a substance. There is no record in the extensive medical literature describing a proven, documented cannabis-induced fatality.” So even parents who might not have my penchant for methodical experimentation would have little to fear in using it to treat children like mine. For my son, not every strain of cannabis helped. When we did see positive effects, they were often accompanied by red eyes or an unwillingness to do anything (“couch lock,” it’s casually called). But eventually, we settled on White Russian, a favorite of cancer patients in pain, and we transitioned from cookies to an oil tincture that my son received orally every few hours with a dropper. (That allowed us to titrate the dosage and made it easier for the nurse to administer at school.) It left him clear-eyed and alert, without the constant pain-furrow in his brow or the off-the-wall rages. It seemed like a miracle. And seven years later, it’s still working. But unlike with other wonder drugs, we can’t just pop into the pharmacy for refills. Growers come and go, and their supplies are always just one mite infestation or robbery or legal scare away from disaster. My son’s original provider, who had put a lot of his own money into making an indoor grow-room for our son’s plants, was robbed and dropped out of Rhode Island’s medical-marijuana program. Another certified grower accidentally killed his plants. Not long after, another certified provider we used called us in a panic. He was being evicted because his landlord was getting anxious about his organic-marijuana operation. Pot is still federally illegal to grow, possess or ingest. (State-licensed medical-marijuana patients and providers have ended up in prison, even while OxyContin, a powerful Schedule 2 drug, is legally prescribable for children.) Once, when my son was late getting his cannabis oil after school, he put his head through a window and cut his face in a frenzy of pain. We gave him his medication, and he calmed down enough that we could bring him to the ER. But at the hospital, I didn’t know whether to admit that we’d given him cannabis. Would I be arrested? Would they call social services? Things got even more complicated when we sold our house in Rhode Island and moved to New York full-time in 2015. Eighty-two percent of New York voters support medical marijuana, according to polls. But the state’s newly implemented medical-marijuana program is absurdly rigid. While other states include autism on their lists of qualifying conditions, New York does not consider glaucoma, much less autism, a sufficient qualification, and physicians have to take a time-intensive course to become certified to prescribe. We left Rhode Island with almost a liter of cannabis-infused oil, but, even though we measure it out in drops, it won’t last forever. And because my son had to turn in his medical-marijuana license when we moved, we can’t go back to get more. The lone dispensary that serves all of Manhattan was, when we walked by one recent weekday, empty of patrons. Contrast this with Denver. In 2014, I visited Medicine Man , a medical and recreational dispensary on the outskirts of the city that was so crowded, I had to wait in line with about a dozen other people. I was amazed by the diversity of cannabis available, the wide variety of strains, and the mesmerizing display of tinctures, edibles, even topical creams for muscle pain. Trained workers were on hand to answer any questions. I wanted to cry, thinking that I could buy bags of White Russian but I wouldn’t be able to take them out of Colorado. If we bring our son’s marijuana when we travel, we worry that we’re committing interstate drug trafficking. This subterfuge, the stigma, the fear and the work required to find a steady supply of the right plant prevent more families with kids in crisis from trying medical marijuana. Even parents sent along by our son’s neurologist, who has been amazed by his transformation, have concluded that it’s all too much for them. Removing these barriers would be as simple as removing cannabis from Schedule 1, as several high-profile leaders, including the governors of Washington and Rhode Island, have urged. I was optimistic that President Obama would do it. After all, he is a former recreational user, who told the New Yorker that marijuana is less dangerous than alcohol and who’s said that science guides his decisions on policy. But the DEA sidelined science when it rejected reclassification in August. “This decision isn’t based on danger,” DEA chief Chuck Rosenberg said. “This decision is based on whether marijuana, as determined by the FDA, is a safe and effective medicine, and it’s not.” In the remaining weeks of his presidency, Obama could still instruct Attorney General Loretta Lynch to remove it from the schedule, leaving a legacy of marijuana patients and their providers who would be protected under the law. President-elect Donald Trump has said little about cannabis, other than it “should be a state issue .” That doesn’t bode well for federal declassification. And some observers predict that Jeff Sessions, Trump’s pick for attorney general, may go to war on legal marijuana. What are my choices, then, as a law-abiding parent, when my son’s cannabis oil runs out? The look of joy and pride on his face as he rides, same as other kids with their families, on a beautiful waterside bike path in New York is glorious to see. He shouldn’t have to go back to days of howling pain and self-injury. washingtonpost
  6. Amsterdam for Christmas? I'll wait for May!

    Amsterdam 2016 Published on Nov 8, 2016 weekend trip to Amsterdam! such a lovely city :') music is tambourine light by woods! no copyright intended, all for personal use [/b]
  7. Pot Activists Plan To Light Up Donald Trump’s Inauguration With 4,200 Joints D.C. Marijuana Justice says it will hand out free cannabis just before marching to the National Mall. Nina Golgowski Trends reporter, The Huffington Post 01/04/2017 [youtube]CBJ1MmqOmfU[/youtube] No matter where you stand on Donald Trump’s impending presidency, pot activists promise his inauguration will be a “smokin’ fun time.” A cannabis coalition from Washington, D.C., said it will hand out 4,200 marijuana joints for free to the public, as the group marches toward the National Mall on Jan. 20. It’s legal to give away marijuana as a gift in D.C., but it’s against the law to sell it or smoke it in public. But that last part’s not stopping DC Marijuana Justice’s plans to publicly light up four minutes and 20 seconds into Trump’s speech. “If somebody wants to do it they are risking arrest but it’s a protest and you know what, the National Mall is a place for protest,” DCMJ founder Adam Eidinger told WUSA Tuesday. Stuart Dee via Getty Images D.C. Marijuana Justice helped legalize marijuana in the district. Now, it plans to hand out free joints just before Donald Trump’s inauguration this month. The public smoke-out aims to encourage federal legalization of pot. It comes amid concerns that Trump’s pick for attorney general, Sen. Jeff Sessions, will reverse the Obama administration’s stance on allowing states to craft their own cannabis laws. Sessions has publicly opposed marijuana use previously. “We legalized cannabis in Washington, D.C., and we are not going to let anyone take that away from us,” reads a post advertising the event on DCMJ’s website. “This is an outreach opportunity to show President Trump’s supporters we are the marijuana majority! Join us for a smokin’ fun time!” Anyone interested in attending the inauguration and getting some bud can meet the group on the west side of Dupont Circle from 8-10 a.m. on the day. Participants must be at least 21 years old. A word of caution: You could be arrested if you’re carrying more than two ounces or found possessing marijuana on federal land within the district. Metropolitan police say that such places include the National Mall, Rock Creek Park, or any other National Park Service land.You can read more about D.C.’s marijuana laws here. This story has been updated to specify where in the district it is illegal to possess marijuana. huffingtonpost
  8. Nightlife in Berlin Smells Sweeter Than The Law Allows  By Michael Knodt January 6th, 2017 International News Photo courtesy of View Apart Germany’s capital is regarded as the European underground for creative people, and unfortunately, it’s also a drug hotspot for those seeking self-destruction. Examples of artistic destruction have been seen in Lou Reed’s Berlin LP, David Bowie’s wild time in the once divided city, the bestselling book “Christiane F. – We Children from Bahnhof Zoo” Nick Cave’s Berlin years in the 1980’s; the city is nearly as famous as Amsterdam when it comes to illegal substances. Due to this climate, the traditionally liberal Berlin population has developed a very progressive attitude towards cannabis. The consumption of cannabis has been accepted in a lot of Berlin’s bars and clubs for almost 50 years, just like a freshly tapped beer next to the “Currywurst,” the culinary landmark of the city, and not much has changed to this day. Christine Köhler-Azara, the current Drug Czar of the federal state, has recently acknowledged the fact that cannabis has become a daily routine in the capital. The open attitude of the population and lawmakers alike is slowly manifesting politically, as the recently adopted coffeeshop pilot project proves. Cannabis is currently offered half-openly in places like Warschauer Brücke or the Görlitzer Park. The tourist hot-spot that has been making headlines since 2014 is by far not the only inner city location where illegal substances are transshipped. Besides the public spots, there are also numerous kiosks or pubs selling more cannabis under the table than drinks over the counter. If such an establishment is closed by the police, a new one will soon open its doors. Not as open as medical dispensaries in Vancouver, but among locals such a reopening is recognized fast. However, the product quality of these street or café deals is lacking and the price is usually very high. Those who consume regularly have found friends or other means to obtain better and cheaper herbs. Liberal State Law Since adults in Berlin are given a written warning for the possession of up to 15 grams of cannabis or hashish, smoking a joint in some districts like Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Neukölln or Prenzlauer Berg is almost as normal as the burning of nicotine. Cigarettes are actually forbidden in bars, restaurants, and clubs all over Germany, but Berlin folks have created a niche, which is more or less in compliance with EU non-smoking laws: smaller pubs, which offer no food, are excluded from the general smoking ban, as long as they are 18+ (in Germany the drinking age for beer in pubs is 16). In the 1970s, 80s and 90s, even a lot of alternative cafés or bars were tolerating small-scale dealing of cannabis in alternative neighborhoods or squat houses. But this is no longer tolerated in the now gentrified environment, unlike the consumption of a few joints. Instead, you can watch coach-loads of tourists who have read city guides like this. They want to spend two or three days in the capital, in order to enjoy the lacking curfew and the tolerance of its establishments. However, experienced clubbers adhere to a few unwritten rules: ◾ You may also burn cannabis at places where cigarettes are allowed. This may be in, but sometimes also in front of, a club or a bar. Watch the locals. ◾Not to fall in security’s hands during the intake control, the stash is to be hidden discreetly. If the doorman detects it, it will be thrown into the garbage and the joint owner will be kicked out as well as banned for a certain time. The police are rarely consulted if the amount is for personal consumption. ◾Anyone who wants or needs to use harder drugs than cannabis will not consume in public, but discreetly go to the bathroom. ◾Dealers are kicked out and banned. Security is strict about selling, and civilian investigators regularly appear as test buyers, but usually leave consumers alone. A Few Smoker-Friendly Berlin Clubs The world famous Berghain now has a smoking lounge where it smells not only of nicotine. The KitKat Club is smoker-friendly on three floors, and no one is interested in what is rolled into a Rizzla. “Eve & Rave,” a Berlin-based safer-use project, has offered a consumption-accepting drug consultation for many years each Friday. The YAAM (Young African Arts Market) is Germany’s most famous reggae & dancehall club with a unique African Craft Market on it’s terrain. As a regular venue of “Hanfparade” and other legalize parties, the YAAM is a must for friends of the forbidden plant. RAW-Temple grounds: There are numerous clubs in the formerly squatted terrain. Especially on the weekends, the huge area is overcrowded. On the way from the subway-station “Warschauer Brücke” to the RAW grounds, you will meet numerous street dealers, who mostly offer cannabis, but sometimes also MDMA, cocaine and amphetamine. This is usually the first stop for weekend tourists who want to enjoy the famous Berlin club life. Void: Small cozy club in Lichtenberg with lovingly designed chill-out corner. Kili (mandscharo)-Club: Right next to the Void. Colorful, bass-heavy program from Techno to Dubstep and Roots’n Dub. This is only a small selection of smoker-friendly clubs in Berlin, without claim to objectivity or completeness. Apart from the ones mentioned here, there is an average of a handful of other clubs and bars in each district of the city center, which have no problem with burning a few joints. But Berlin travelers should absolutely know that even if it feels different, ownership and consumption in Berlin are still illegal. In addition to cannabis, cocaine or amphetamines are often offered during the search for a bud in street. This price of a black market, where all kinds of controlled substances are offered simultaneously to anybody, will be paid until the German capital has opened regulated and legal cannabis stores. marijuana.com
  9. Vive La France! Presidential Candidate Calls for Marijuana Legalization  By Monterey Bud January 6th, 2017 International News With decidedly better things to spend their limited resources on, France’s socialist candidate Benoît Hamon says he would legalize cannabis if elected. Hamon appreciates that by legalizing the peaceful cannabis plant, France would ultimately “dry up the underground economy,” while simultaneously reducing violence and generating new jobs and revenue. Cognizant of the positive economic effects reported after Colorado legalized recreational marijuana consumption in 2012, Benoît Hamon Tweeted: Roughly translated via Twitter and Bing, Benoît Hamon’s argument sounds very familiar: “The cannabis prohibition is a failure, I will engage its legalization to make the police focus on other priorities.” Last April’s bill proposing the state-sanctioned sale and use of cannabis stalled in the French parliament over concerns that France’s youth would overindulge if legalized. While France was outed by the World Health Organization in a 2014 survey as having the highest percentage of 15-year-old marijuana consumers, Spain and the Netherlands – both of which allow for marijuana clubs – did substantially better at keeping cannabis out of the hands of their teenage population. France: percentage of 15-year-olds who used cannabis in last 30 days France: percentage of 15-year-olds who used cannabis in last 30 days Still living in the proverbial dark ages, medical marijuana is unfortunately considered a prohibited substance in France. That said, they have begun to recognize the medicinal value of the plant’s many cannabinoids and have recently approved some cannabis-based drugs for treating certain medical conditions. marijuana.com
  10. Medical Marijuana Update

    Medical Marijuana Update by psmith, January 04, 2017 Arkansas and Florida start moving toward voter-approved medical marijuana systems, Massachusetts activists push for greater patient access, and more. Arkansas Last Friday, a lawmaker filed medical marijuana implementation bills. State Rep. Douglas House (R-North Little Rock) has filed a pair of bills aimed at the state's new medical marijuana law. House Bill 1057 would add national and state criminal background check requirements, while House Bill 1058 would amend the definition of written certification to clarify that it is not a medical record. The bills are not yet available on the legislative web site. Florida As of Tuesday, Florida is now a medical marijuana state. The constitutional amendment approved by voters in November to legalize medical marijuana went into effect Tuesday. But the state doesn't have a distribution system up and running yet. Lawmakers and the state Department of Health will have to craft rules, with an implementation target date of September 9. Massachusetts On Tuesday, a public hearing heard calls for eased patient access. At a public hearing in Boston Tuesday, advocates called for changes in the state's medical marijuana law to allow hospices and nursing homes to provide the medicine for patients. "Hospice patients are literally out of time," said Elizabeth Dost, clinical director for the Massachusetts Patient Advocacy Alliance, which represents medical marijuana patients. "The patient's average length of stay (in hospice) in Massachusetts is 35 to 45 days. By the time they access cannabis, they are often deceased." Another public hearing is set for Thursday morning in Holyoke. New Hampshire Last Friday, a new bill being drafted would let patients grow their own. A bill currently in draft form would allow patients living at least 30 miles from a dispensary to grow their medicine. New Hampshire and Connecticut are the only New England states that don't allow patients to grow, and state Rep. Renny Cushing (D-Hampton) wants to change that. He said he is open to altering the bill's language, including the 30-mile provision. Puerto Rico Last Friday, the territory got its first dispensaries. Medical marijuana dispensaries have begun operating in the US territory, Gov. Alejandro Garcia Padilla said Friday. He said two dispensaries are now open. The move comes nearly two years after his administration adopted a regulation to allow for medical marijuana. [For extensive information about the medical marijuana debate, presented in a neutral format, visit MedicalMarijuana.ProCon.org.] stopthedrugwar
  11. Amsterdam for Christmas? I'll wait for May!

    Carillon Concerts Free Stuff Carillon Concerts in AmsterdamCarillon Concerts - One of the most uplifting ‘free things’ in Amsterdam are the Carillon Concerts that chime from the local church towers four times a week. The city's Carillons are quite popular and you sometimes see an office window, a kitchen shutter or a hatch open up to let in the sounds in of these glorious 17th-century bells. The music ranges from classic to folk to modern music. Programs are usually posted the day before at the foot of the tower. To catch these concerts, be around the Church on the following times: Westerkerk (Prinsengracht 281) Tuesday from 12 till 1 P.M.; Zuiderkerk (Zandstraat) Thursday from 10 till 11 A.M.; Munttoren (Muntplein) Friday from 12 till 1 P.M.; Oude Kerk (Oudekerksplein 23) Saturday from 4 till 5 P.M.
  12. United Kingdom Allows the Use of Charlotte’s Web CBD Oil Lisa Rough The United Kingdom just took a tremendous step forward in the cannabis movement. For the first time in the U.K., the coveted Charlotte’s Web strain will be offered in oil form by a London and Kent-based company called UK CBD. Charlotte’s Web products are low in THC and high in CBD, made from varieties of hemp that are legal in the United Kingdom. UK CBD owner and CEO Nicholas P. Ellis released a statement on the products and the benefits to UK consumers: “As leaders in the UK CBD market, we are extremely proud to partner with CW Botanicals and to legally add their exclusive Charlotte’s Web products to our already impressive range…We believe that introducing these products to the UK market will help many people suffering from ECS (endocannabinoid system) deficiencies or for those who just wish to add these nutritious cannabinoids to their daily dietary supplementation. Hemp is also rich in vitamins, minerals and omegas 3 & 6.” Charlotte’s Web, as many are aware, is a high-CBD strain known for its anti-epileptic properties that reduced the number of seizures for little Charlotte Figi, the strain’s namesake. Before beginning treatment, Charlotte, affectionately known as Charlie, was suffering from up to 300 violent seizures a week. She suffered from a severe form of epilepsy, Dravet’s Syndrome, which is resistant to standard epilepsy medication. After discovering the strain and starting a standard dose of high-CBD cannabis oil, her seizures reduced down to two or three a week. The United Kingdom has been making headway, with a recent petition calling for the legalization of cannabis in the UK that has attracted nearly 200,000 signatures. Any petitions with more than 100,000 signatures must be considered by Parliament, and this legalization petition is currently awaiting a debate date. leafly
  13. What new based on the forum upgrade?

  14. Cannabis Cooking 101

    Cannabis Cooking 101 If you have the luxury of being able to obtain your medicine from a legal dispensary near you, you may have noticed the large selection of edibles that are beginning to overflow the shelves. These pre-made, pre-packaged cannabis infused treats are more accessible to patients nowadays than ever before, but unfortunately many edibles still come packed with sugar, high fructose corn syrup, and other unhealthy ingredients. While these processed food delights can be an easy way to get medicated on the go, many medical marijuana patients prefer making their own medicated snacks and infused meals — and for good reason. Decarboxylation Using cannabis as a medicine begins with understanding the basic science of decarboxylation, and why it is a crucial process in making edibles, tinctures and topical treatments. To get the full medicinal value out of your cannabis, it needs to be heated to a temperature that is just not possible to obtain in the human digestive system. The major downside of decarboxylating is that some of the more volatile terpenes (and other aromatics) that give the plant its signature aroma and flavor are lost during the process. Adding an equal amount of raw material to the decarboxylated materials may improve the taste and/or smell of your creations, but learning how to properly decarboxylate cannabis from the get-go will save you a lot of time, energy, money and product when cooking with cannabis. The Decarboxylation Process The predominant compounds found in cannabis are THCA and CBDA. THCA is the major cannabinoid in Cannabis, while CBDA predominates in fiber-type hemps. THCA and CBDA accumulate in the secretory cavity of the glandular trichomes, which largely occur in female flowers and in most aerial parts of the plants. The concentration of these compounds depends on the variety of cannabis and its growth, harvesting and storage conditions. When locked in their acidic forms, THCA and CBDA are not bioavailable to the body’s cannabinoid receptors. Occurring either naturally within the plant, or upon “decarboxylation” (heating the plant material), these acids are non-enzymatically decarboxylated into their corresponding neutral forms (THC and CBD). THCA is non-psychoactive (meaning it does not produce mind and body altering effects). If you want to achieve the full psychoactive effects of your butters, fats, oils, sugars or alcohols, decarboxylating the plant material to convert the THCA to THC prior to infusion is essential. Control of heating temperatures and times is critical when cooking with cannabis. Heating cannabis also converts THC to CBN. At about 70% decarboxylation, THC is converted to CBN at a faster rate than the THCA is converted to THC. Higher CBN levels will produce more sedative effects. Studies show cannabidiol (CBD) has tremendous medical potential, especially in the treatment of seizure disorders and pediatric patients. Indications also suggest CBD lowers blood sugar, which makes it desirable for treating diabetes. Its sedative properties make it useful in the treatment of stress-related and sleep disorders. CBDA and CBD are non-psychoactive. Unlike THCA and THC, converting CBDA to CBD will not make a psychoactive product. CBD has a calming effect. This makes it ideal for treating children, the aged or patients that prefer less psychoactive effects. THC vaporizes quicker than CBD, so decarboxylating higher CBD varieties may produce higher CBD-enriched material. However, if you are not using a high CBD strain, extending the heating process may accomplish no more than burning off the THC. There is much debate and opinion on this process and very little scientific evidence to establish the best method. The only real way to prove the safety, consistency and potency of your cannabis products is to have them lab tested. How to Decarboxylate Cannabis Forewarning: There will be a very strong odor of cannabis during this process. 1.Preheat oven to 225° F / 110° C. 2.Line an oven-safe dish (or a rimmed baking sheet) with parchment paper. 3.Breaking up cannabis buds into smaller pieces by hand, place the material in the dish close together but not stacked on one another (the less unused space the better). 4.When oven is pre-heated, bake for about 20 minutes to remove the moisture (depending on the freshness of the material). Watch for the plant color to get darker (a light to medium brown shade). When it is time to remove from the oven, the material should be crumbly looking. 5.Set plant material aside and wait until it is cool enough to handle. Turn oven up to 240° F / 115° C and wait for it to preheat again. 6.When the cannabis is cooled, lightly crumble by hand and distribute evenly over the bottom of the dish. 7.Cover dish with aluminum foil, crimping the edges tight to seal and return to the oven. Continue baking for another 45-60 minutes for higher THC and 60-90 minutes for higher CBD. 8.Remove from oven and allow to cool fully before removing the foil. Depending on the material you use, it may be fine enough and require no further processing. If not, you can place the material in a food processor or blender, pulsing the cannabis until it is coarsely ground. Be careful not to over grind the material, as you do not want a super fine powder. 9.Place in an airtight container (glass preferred) and store in a cool, dry place. Infusion Methods Cannabis Infused Cooking Oil Cannabis infused cooking oils, commonly referred to as canna oils, are popular among many medical marijuana patients and caregivers looking to infuse... View recipe How to Make Cannabis Infused Butter (Cannabutter) Cannabis infused butter, otherwise known as cannabutter, is a primary ingredient in many marijuana-infused recipes. Cannabis butter is technically an... View recipe Cannabis Infused Coconut Oil How to Make Infused Coconut Oil Making cannabis-infused coconut oil is as simple as steeping quality herb in a quality oil. Machines are available to make... View recipe medicaljane
  15. WHO Takes First Steps To Reclassify Medical Cannabis Under International Law by Scott Gacek on January 01, 2017 It could still be a long wait, but patients in the United States may not be dependent on the Drug Enforcement Administration to reclassify marijuana. The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Drug Dependence (ECDD) recently met and initiated the first steps in a long process that could lead to the rescheduling of medical marijuana under international law, and has committed to hold a special session to discuss medical marijuana in the next eighteen months. “In order for cannabis to be rescheduled, the United Nations General Assembly would vote on a recommendation made by the CND.” Eighteen months may seem like a long time, but discussions regarding the potential rescheduling of cannabis have been stalled for years, and the process could result in fundamental changes in the way medical marijuana research and regulations are handled in the United States and around the world. The ECDD is a very influential committee whose recommendations are made to the Secretary General of the United Nations, who can then bring the recommendations to a vote by the United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND). In order for cannabis to be rescheduled, the United Nations General Assembly would vote on a recommendation made by the CND. If approved by the UN General Assembly, those changes would then be reflected in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, which currently lists cannabis as a Schedule I and IV substance, meaning a substance with a high risk of abuse, produces ill effects, and has no potential therapeutic benefit. Under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, which was ratified in 1961 and is signed by 185 of the 193 countries that make up the United Nations, including the United States, member countries are responsible for passing and enforcing their own drug laws, but the Single Convention is regarded as the standard for international drug laws. Many lawmakers point to the Single Convention as the primary obstacle in the United States’ inability to reschedule cannabis. According to an extract from the 38th Expert Committee on Drug Dependence that convened from November 14-18 in Geneva, the committee recognized an increase in the use of cannabis and its components for medical purposes, the emergence of new cannabis-related pharmaceutical preparations for therapeutic use, and that cannabis has never been subject to a formal pre-review or critical review by the ECDD. Over the next eighteen months, the committee has requested pre-reviews for cannabis plant matter, extracts and tinctures, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and stereoisomers of THC. This pre-review is a preliminary analysis used to determine if a more in-depth critical review will be undertaken by the ECDD, and will represent the first new scientific guidance on marijuana to the United Nations since 1935, when cannabis was first classified as a Schedule I/IV substance by the Health Committee of the League of Nations. Rescheduling at the international level would have major ramifications for US policy on medical cannabis, as all too often politicians cite the Single Convention as the reason Congress cannot move towards rescheduling cannabis. So while this may seem like a long, drawn out process, it could ultimately remove that final roadblock, making it well worth the wait. medicaljane