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  1. 3 points
    The gals recieved a light fish fert feeding. Yesterday i recieved the notification that the LED CO. Sent out the MJ12 LED so we shall swap out the Quantum 4Ft 8 bulb T5 i have in use for the early veg light. Excited to see the difference in results after the swap takes place! Propagating some autos and just put the clones into medium. Autos are: Power Punch and Chimp Glue. Clones: Holy Grail OG and Yoda OG. Happy Growing!
  2. 3 points
    Marijuana bill faces critical vote at last step ahead of legalization Senators are set to vote on Bill C-45, the Cannabis Act, at third reading in the Senate on Thursday, after studying the legislation for six months. Rachel Aiello, Ottawa News Bureau Online Producer Published Monday, June 4, 2018 OTTAWA – The bill to legalize recreational marijuana in Canada is up for a crucial vote at the last step in the legislative process this week, with uncertainty looming over what the final wording of the law will be. Senators are set to vote on Bill C-45, the Cannabis Act, at third reading in the Senate on Thursday, after studying it for six months. For those planning to follow the vote that day, rest up as it’s possible the vote could not happen until midnight. It could also be much earlier, but entirely depends on how many senators want to speak to the bill that day. Midnight would be the latest possible, as all sides agreed to vote on the bill by June 7 at the latest. The legislation – an electoral promise of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and the Liberal Party – would allow adults in Canada to legally possess and use small amounts of recreational marijuana. It sets out parameters around the production, possession, safety standards, distribution, and sale of marijuana. It also creates new Criminal Code offences for selling marijuana to minors. The proposed federal law spells out that it will be illegal for anyone younger than 18 to buy pot, but allows for provinces and territories to set a higher minimum age. Bill C-45 was introduced alongside Bill C-46 which specifically deals with drug-impaired driving. It is still before the Senate and is facing its own winding legislative journey. Read more on that here. Speaking with CTVNews.ca, Leader of the Independent Senators Group Sen. Yuen Pau Woo classified Bill C-45 as a "stress test" on the increasingly independent Senate. The Senate has already passed amendments to Bill C-45, which forces the legislation to be sent back to the House of Commons if it passes. There, the government will have to decide if it will accept all the changes made by the Senate. Read more on the specifics of the amendments made, below. If the House of Commons decides to adopt the changes made by the Upper Chamber, the bill could receive Royal Assent by week's end. However, if the government doesn't back some of the more than 40 changes, then the bill could be in for a few rounds of legislative ping pong, where it will be passed back and forth a few times between the House and Senate as they haggle over the final wording. Once the bill passes it is technically law, however the federal government says it will be another eight to 12 weeks before provinces and other stakeholders can be ready for retail sales, allowing for time to adjust any regulations to align with amendments made to the bill. The provinces, territories, and municipalities have already begun setting up their legalized regimes; employers have been preparing for the question of weed at work; and law enforcement agencies are training for a potential influx in drug-impaired driving. Read more on that here. Important moments for Bill C-45 and marijuana legalization so far: April 2017 – Bill C-45 was introduced by Justice Minister Jody Wilson-Raybould alongside then-health minister Jane Philott, Public Safety Minister Ralph Goodale, National Revenue Minister Diane Lebouthillier, and parliamentary secretary Bill Blair. September 2017 – The bill was amended by the House of Commons Health Committee. After marathon testimony that saw more than 100 witnesses come before the committee, MPs from all sides agreed to cut out the height restriction on homegrown marijuana plants, as well as more than 20 other mainly technical changes. November 2017 – The legislation was passed by the House of Commons by a vote of 200 to 82. From there it was sent to the Senate, where Conservative senators were already discussing potential efforts to delay the bill. December 2017 – The bill was first debated in the Senate, brought forward by Senate sponsor, Independent Senator Tony Dean. In total, Bill C-45 had 13 days of debate at this stage. February 2018 – Senators passed a timeline for Bill C-45, spelling out the schedule for the bill at each stage of the legislative process, with the final vote happening on or before June 7. This move pushed back the government's desired timetable for pot to be legal, initially expected for July 2018. Also in February, the Senate held a special televised hearing to question the government's lead team on the marijuana bill. March 2018 – After some concern the second reading vote would be close and result in the extremely uncommon killing of a government bill by the Senate, senators passed the bill on to the committee stage with a vote of 44 to 29. The bill was then sent to the Senate Social Affairs, Science and Technology Committee, in addition to receiving supplementary scrutiny from four other committees: the Aboriginal Peoples Committee; the Legal and Constitutional Affairs committee; the National Security and Defence Committee; and the Foreign Affairs and International Trade Committee. May 2018 – The supplementary committee studies were concluded, with senators offering recommendations for changes that include delaying the implementation of a legal recreational regime for up to a year to better consult Indigenous people; and negotiating an agreement on the treatment of travellers at the U.S. border related to marijuana, that would include the kinds of questions that officials can ask. As well, after 18 meetings the main committee studying Bill C-45, the Senate Social Affairs Committee brought the bill back before the Senate as a whole with 40 amendments. These changes were mostly technical but one significant alteration to the bill was to allow premiers to ban home-growing marijuana in their province or territory if they so choose. The Senate adopted the committee's amendments on Bill C-45 and the legislation is now before the Senate as whole at third reading stage. At third reading senators are able to debate and pass further amendments to the bill, as has already taken place. In an effort to structure the remaining days of discussion, in late May Government Representative in the Senate Sen. Peter Harder passed a motion to structure debate each day by theme and spell out various procedural rules. On May 31 senators debated issues relating to marijuana production, and home and agricultural cultivation. June 2018 – On June 1, while debating issues related to the sale and distribution of marijuana and packaging, senators passed an amendment from Conservative Sen. Judith Seidman. Her amendment restricts the sale of marijuana merchandise and promotional products that could appeal to youth. The amendment passed by a vote of 34 to 28. Debate and possible changes to the bill will continue following this thematic schedule up until the scheduled vote: Monday, June 4 senators are set to tackle international and border issues related to legalization; Tuesday, June 5 senators will debate and bring any amendments related to criminal penalties related to the new regime; and Wednesday June 6 senators will discuss public and mental health matters, consumption, as well as impacts from an Indigenous perspective. Pending any unforeseen circumstances, Bill C-45, the Cannabis Act is set to be voted on, on Thursday June 7. Woo, citing the over 200 hours of testimony heard on Bill C-45, said he hopes most senators show restraint day-of and offer their contribution to the debate during one of the allotted days spelled out above. He said it would be "highly unexpected," procedurally if anything prevented senators from voting. Even if it's not until late Thursday, senators may have some parliamentary company, as due to an unrelated government decision, the House of Commons is sitting until midnight that night. While the Conservative contingent in the Senate has already stated it plans to oppose the passage of the bill, it is yet to be seen what the breakdown of support will be among Independent senators, many of whom have expressed concern with the bill, but have given their approval to see it pass through all stages with the intent of improving the legislation. Woo said he is planning to vote in favour of Bill C-45, because the amendments that senators have passed have improved the legislation, but insisted there will be no whipping of other Independents’ votes. If Bill C-45 passes, given it has been amended, it will go back to the House of Commons, where the aforementioned legislative ping pong could ensue. It is yet to be seen what if any changes the Senate will insist on, but it’s expected that dealing with the bill if it is sent back will be the Senate's top priority. Late August or early September 2018 – This is the window of time the federal government is anticipating that marijuana will be fully legalized across the country. https://www.ctvnews.ca/politics/marijuana-bill-faces-critical-vote-at-last-step-ahead-of-legalization-1.3958662
  3. 3 points
    I sure made a rookie mistake when I did my pollinating. Rather than take each plant out of the grow room and putting a garbage bag over it and pulling out a branch to dust I turned off the fans and dusted in the room with no bags. Let them sit overnight and sprayed water around to deactivate any loose pollen then fired up the fans and light. Now I got seeds in almost every bud and the plants are concentrating on seed production. The BB and OG being taller don't seem so badly hit but the Critical Mass and AK have hardly any white hairs any more at day 35 so the yields are going to be greatly reduced. Just a seed or three in each bud but I guess it's enough to screw things up pretty good. For now on I'll be rooting clones and doing any pollinating on them rather than the large plants. Still killing mites every day but just a dozen or so so keeping the numbers down until harvest. Flat out refuse to spray anything on the plants in flower to get rid of them but hosing down the veg plants to make sure they are clean before flowering this time. Take heed! :) These pics are from 3 days ago on the 35th day of 12/12. They've all had a lot of neglect and some nute burn so certainly aren't my best work. Depression has been bad all winter and it's hard to do what needs doing a lot of the time. My really low RH makes it so easy to fry the girls too. The BB girls. Very similar in growth and structure. The smaller one was started about 9 days later than the larger one when one seed didn't sprout. The AK47. Two very different phenos with these seed grown girls. Obviously not a very stable strain from CanukSeeds and for $20/seed I would expect more uniformity. The Critical Mass from cuttings so I expect them to be the same in taste and buzz tho they are different heights because they got put into flowering at different times. One spent almost a month in DWC but never rooted so was a lot smaller when it went into flower. Have the other two in veg upstairs. They look like they would have grown massive colas if they hadn't got all seeded up so looking forward to the next batch of them done right. From the sample buds I took at 3 weeks it's killer smoke. The always fussy to grow OG#18 that got burned bad and now seems to be starving or something tho it's getting fed well. Almost took a pass on it but took two cuttings for the heck of it. Really nice buzz tho nothing spectacular. Pleasant and relaxing. Smallish round buds that don't form colas so the yields are small but worth having in my inventory for it's difference. I took 2 cuttings each off the AK, BB and OG#18 on the 19th on the 29th day of 12/12 and yesterday there were tiny roots on 4 of the 10. Still have to wait for them to re-veg but pretty sure they will. Don't want to lose the AK and BB in case they turn out really good once harvested and cured. Still have the two Cr. Mass in veg so can get cuttings any time off them. Got the male BB revegging and took three cuttings off it yesterday so I can toss the plant. 4ft tall and hard to fit in with the smaller plants in veg. Also still popping some balls and dropping pollen so want to get rid of it. I just ordered a USB scope that should be here by Friday so will be getting some nice closeup pics of the trichomes. 40-1000X and can plug into my phone then I can can transfer the pics to this PC for cropping and resizing. A new toy! :)
  4. 2 points
    Hello everyone. My names Kevin and I'm 23 years old. I'm from Wasilla, Alaska, and owner of www.reefersquad.com We're a social media network for both medical and recreational marijuana users to connect and share their love for marijuana. I just wanted to introduce myself. Hope everyone is doing well.
  5. 2 points
    Hi reefer squad, welcome to CC, your almost Canadian hiding up there in the corner lol. What's the challenges for growing up there compared to the lower states apart from the obvious freezing cold weather?
  6. 2 points
    My plants are 5 weeks into flowering. Some of the remaining large leaves are showing some wilting. The soil feels damp enough to not need to water. I would love to hear an expert's opinion on how a plant uses water during flowering verses veg. I feel like I should water but I know my gut feel has killed many a plant. Logic says in the fall, there would typically be less water when a plant in nature is flowering. SO, what do you think? Also, some of the upper leaves are clawing. I assume that is from my dropping the RH to less than 30%? Thanks guys. Your advise has gotten me to a point I wasn't too sure I'd reach.
  7. 2 points
    i'm basically trying to control the humidity in the room. i have been having problems with pm and i'm trying to get it figured out.i went to a friends room the other day and while there he showed me his setup, but as we were looking at it he said i gotta get the door closed or the humidity spikes[ because of the temp difference between rooms]so i got thinking every time i'm in there working on the plants i have the door open.do you think this could be my issue? i do have a day\night fan controller and if i leave the door closed right now it's staying around 40%rh.i'll have to try just going in and leaving the door closed while i work.this is why i like outdoor ,fill the bucket and throw it out . let mother nature do her thing. shouldn't say that , i am enjoying the inside growing just have to get it figured out a little better . thanks for the reply.
  8. 2 points
    The compressor fills up to 120 lbs pressure and I have it so it bubbles good at first but still bubbles until it gets to about 5 lbs pressure takes it about 20 min to 1/2 hr to bubble down. I usually run it several times a day. It's electric and the outlet is connected to a room light so I flip the light on and run it till it fills up then turn the light off. I use the tea for my garden too. I have a small hard plastic kid pool for the dogs to get cool during the heat of the day. I usually take the water out of that in 5 gallon bucket to refill as our water has chlorine in it and that water the chlorine has evaporated out..... It does produce a lot of tea...Peace..
  9. 2 points
    guess that's why i'm still poor lol. yes i would appreciate a link to where you got the rh meter at .thanks
  10. 2 points
    Water a bit from the bottom and see if those leaves perk up but it could just be that the plant is scavenging nutes from those leaves which is normal for later in flowering. Then they would start looking less healthy and could be the reason they are drooping. If most of the roots are at the bottom of their containers they can use up available water down there while the bulk of the rootball is still moist. That's why I said to try adding water to the drip tray and let them suck it up where they may be able to get at it better. The lower RH and a little heat stress can definitely cause the clawing. Excess salts from nutes and tap water can make it a lot worse as well. The older fan leaves will generally show effects from salts buildup first unless there is a bit too much heat baking the top leaves then it shows up there first as so much extra water is being evaporated from them concentrating salts in their tissues.
  11. 2 points
    The company just took on 10 of us to document the lights performance.
  12. 2 points
    When growing Pot is Legal PotHeads will have WAY more variety on hand, when you show up for a visit. A few grams of this and that, A few grams of various hash and oil. Maybe a cookie or two.. Yup we are going to like it a lot.
  13. 2 points
    A few pictures I just took. Had to downsize them a lot so quality is medium low.
  14. 2 points
    Hello every one. I'm new to forums in general and this one so hopefully it's ok postings this question here. Recently diagnosed with ADHD and finding pharmaceutical meds are not helping. I've recently discovered CBD gummies that help me sleep at least. I'm looking for a doctor that has experience with cannabis and in particular ADHD. I've read some good things in regards to how much it helps some people but I would like to get some solid direction rather than floundering around. Can anyone recommend a good doctor that I can be referred to ? My doctor is on board but has no idea who to send me to. Any help would be greatly appreciated.
  15. 2 points
    Senate committee supports amending cannabis bill to let provinces ban homegrown pot By Joan BrydenThe Canadian Press Mon., May 28, 2018 OTTAWA—A Senate committee passed 40 amendments Monday to the federal government’s cannabis legalization bill, including one that would allow provinces and territories to ban homegrown marijuana. But the social affairs committee refused to accept a Conservative amendment that would have prohibited home cultivation outright. Quebec and Manitoba have decided to prohibit home cultivation of marijuana. (Steve Helber / THE ASSOCIATED PRESS file photo) And it defeated another that would have indefinitely delayed implementation of the legislation until the government reports to both houses of Parliament on the measures it’s taking to deal with the concerns of Indigenous communities. The vast majority of the amendments approved were largely technical in nature and would have little affect on the substance of Bill C-45. Indeed, 29 of them were proposed by the sponsor of the bill in the Senate, independent Sen. Tony Dean, which suggests they have the blessing of the government. The committee’s amended version of the bill will now go back to the Senate as a whole, where senators will decide whether to accept or reject the amendments or propose additional changes. The various factions in the Senate have agreed to hold a final vote on the bill by June 7, which would allow the Trudeau government to deliver on its promise to have the legal recreational cannabis regime up and running by late summer. Under C-45, individuals would be allowed to grow up to five plants in a single dwelling. But Quebec and Manitoba have decided to prohibit home cultivation, setting up future legal challenges in which Justice Minister Jody Wilson-Raybould has said the federal legislation would prevail. The Senate committee, which conducted a clause-by-clause examination of the bill Monday, unanimously supported an amendment specifying that provincial and territorial governments have the authority to prohibit homegrown pot if they so choose. Dean was among those supporting the amendment, again suggesting the government is willing to go along with the change. However, the committee rejected, by a vote of 7-5, another amendment proposed by Conservative Sen. Judith Seidman that would have imposed a blanket prohibition on home growing across the country. It similarly rejected an amendment proposed by Conservative Sen. Dennis Patterson, which would have delayed implementation of the bill until the government reports to the House of Commons and the Senate on what it’s doing to address the concerns of Indigenous communities. None of the independent or independent Liberal senators on the committee supported either of those two Conservative amendments, which could bode well for the government in ensuring the bill is ultimately passed by the Senate. The 32 Conservative senators have voted as a block against the bill at every opportunity so far but they’d need at least 15 other senators to join them on the final vote to defeat or delay it. Patterson made an impassioned plea for delaying implementation, arguing that the government’s consultation with Indigenous people thus far has been “abysmal.” Moreover, First Nations governments will bear the impact of legalization on health, social and policing services, but he noted they have not so far been offered a share of the federal excise tax on cannabis to cover those costs. “This is a terribly vulnerable population,” he told the committee, noting that Indigenous communities are already struggling with severe alcohol and drug abuse problems, mental health issues and a suicide epidemic — all of which he suggested will get worse if cannabis is readily and legally available. Patterson’s amendment did not go quite as far as the Senate’s Aboriginal people’s committee, which had recommended a delay of up to a year to enable more consultation with Indigenous communities. He put no timeline on his proposal for a government report on how it’s addressing Aboriginal concerns and argued that the government could pull one together within a month if it wanted. Independent Sen. Marc Gold said no one disagrees with the challenges facing Indigenous communities, but said he’s encouraged that the government is already taking steps to address them. Indigenous people are overrepresented in the criminal justice systems and delaying implementation of a legalized cannabis regime will only exacerbate the problem, he argued. Liberal MP Bill Blair, the government’s point man on cannabis legalization, told the committee just prior to its clause-by-clause examination of the bill that some Indigenous communities want to get involved in the lucrative business of producing legal marijuana and the government has developed a guide to help them navigate the licensing process. The government has also provided funding for culturally appropriate public education about the risks of using cannabis and for improved delivery of addiction, prevention and treatment services in Indigenous communities, he said. Blair also told committee members that Bill C-45 is comprehensive, “thoughtfully designed” legislation that strikes a careful balance among diverse perspectives. But Conservative Sen. Carolyn Stewart Olsen questioned that assertion, given the number of amendments proposed by Dean to correct “flaws” in the drafting of the bill. “I don’t see that that is thoughtful or well designed,” she said. Other amendments passed by the committee include those that would: Require regulations that flow from the legislation to impose a maximum potency limit on cannabis products. Give the House of Commons and Senate 30 days to review regulations before they’re implemented. Specifying that a permanent resident who is sentenced to six months or less for breaking the cannabis law would not face an additional penalty of being found inadmissible to Canada and deported. https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2018/05/28/senate-committee-supports-amending-cannabis-legalization-bill-to-give-provinces-authority-to-ban-homegrown-pot.html
  16. 2 points
    Heres a peak at what is going on. The new light still on its way. I will be momming out the bigger plant as for the clones they will be grown to harvest under the MJ12 LED. Lets see how this goes!
  17. 2 points
    Today as I was doing my morning inspection, I found that the tallest cola on one plant is sprouting a seed. Since the parent plant was seedy, I assumed a hermie but was hopeful. The plant is one of two, the seed is on one of about a dozen stems flowering. The plants are growing inside, in a tent, under led and have been flowering for a month. Just wondering what to do at this point. Apologies if this subject is beat to death, Couldn't find much on a search concerning action to take.
  18. 2 points
    When growing Pot is legal Parents can stop lying to their Children about Pot. Just had a friend get busted by his 11 year old Daughter. Grandma and Grandma were outed too.
  19. 2 points
    Not much you can do now but finish flowering. Like Lab said look for nanners on your plants. Then don't use feminized seeds as they are created from hermi plants and are prone to hermi.... I.E. weak genetics. Yes you get more female plants but the risk is pollinating your whole grow. Also check your tent for light leaks as that can also cause hermi. Any light cycle change can lead to hermi plants especially with weak genetics. Better to start 10 seeds and get 4 females than to start 10 seeds and get 8 females only to have your grow seeded due to a hermi plant.... But that is just my opinion... and everyone has their own.....hahaha.... peace...
  20. 2 points
    What is the Endocannabinoid System and What is Its Role? Nick Jikomes  Some of us consume cannabis for its mind-altering effects, while others seek symptom relief. But cannabis wouldn’t get us high or have some of its therapeutic benefits if our bodies didn’t already contain a biological system capable of interacting with its active chemical compounds, like THC. Our endocannabinoid system does just that. But it isn’t there just to allow us to enjoy the effects of our favorite strain. It serves a vital purpose for our health and well-being because it regulates key aspects of our biology. So, what’s it doing, and how does it work? Homeostasis: Staying in the Goldilocks Zone To understand the human endocannabinoid system, it’s helpful to know a little about one of the most fundamental concepts in biology: homeostasis. And the best way to understand homeostasis is to think of Goldilocks and the three bears. That classic fairy tale illustrated the idea that the best outcome often lies somewhere in the middle, between two extremes. We don’t want things too hot or too cold, but just right. RELATED STORY Is Your Endocannabinoid System in Balance? Homeostasis is the concept that most biological systems are actively regulated to maintain conditions within a narrow range. Our body doesn’t want its temperature to be too hot or too cold, blood sugar levels too high or too low, and so on. Conditions need to be just right for our cells to maintain optimum performance, and exquisite mechanisms have evolved to draw them back to the Goldilocks zone if they move out. The body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a vital molecular system for helping maintain homeostasis—it helps cells stay in their Goldilocks zone. Key Pieces of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) Human Body Anatomical Model Because of its crucial role in homeostasis, the ECS is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Its key pieces evolved a long time ago, and the ECS can be found in all vertebrate species. The three key components of the ECS are: •Cannabinoid receptors found on the surface of cells •Endocannabinoids, small molecules that activate cannabinoid receptors •Metabolic enzymes that break down endocannabinoids after they are used Cannabinoid Receptors Cannabinoid receptors sit on the surface of cells and “listen” to conditions outside the cell. They transmit information about changing conditions to the inside of the cell, kick-starting the appropriate cellular response. There are two major cannabinoid receptors: CB1 and CB2. These aren’t the only cannabinoid receptors, but they were the first ones discovered and remain the best-studied. CB1 receptors are one of the most abundant receptor types in the brain. These are the receptors that interact with THC to get people high. CB2 receptors are more abundant outside of the nervous system, in places like the immune system. However, both receptors can be found throughout the body (Figure 1). Figure 1: where are CB1 and CB2 receptors located in the body? The CB1 and CB2 receptors are key players in the endocannabinoid system (ECS). They are located on the surface of many different types of cells in the body. Both receptors are found throughout the body, but CB1 receptors are more abundant in the central nervous system, including on neurons in the brain. In contrast, CB2 receptors are more abundant outside of the nervous system, including cells of the immune system. Endocannabinoids Endocannabinoids are molecules that, like the plant cannabinoid THC, bind to and activate cannabinoid receptors. However, unlike THC, endocannabinoids are produced naturally by cells in the human body (“endo” means “within,” as in within the body). There are two major endocannabinoids: anandamide and 2-AG (Figure 2). These endocannabinoids are made from fat-like molecules within cell membranes, and are synthesized on-demand. This means that they get made and used exactly when they’re needed, rather than packaged and stored for later use like many other biological molecules. Figure 2: Anandamide and 2-AG are the two major endocannabinoids. Cannabinoids are a class of molecules characterized by their ability to activate cannabinoid receptors like CB1 and CB2. Anandamide and 2-AG are the two major endocannabinoids produced naturally in the body. THC is the psychoactive plant cannabinoid produced by Cannabis. All three of these cannabinoids can activate the CB1 and CB2 receptors, although each one has a different potency at each receptor. Metabolic Enzymes The third piece of the endocannabinoid triad are the metabolic enzymes that quickly destroy endocannabinoids once they are used. The two big enzymes are FAAH, which breaks down anandamide, and MAGL, which breaks down 2-AG (Figure 3). These enzymes ensure that endocannabinoids get used when they’re needed, but not for longer than necessary. This distinguishes endocannabinoids from many other molecular signals in the body, such as hormones or classical neurotransmitters, which can persist for many seconds or minutes, or get packaged and stored for later use. Figure 2: FAAH and MAGL are the key enzymes of the endocannabinoid system. Enzymes are molecules that accelerate chemical reactions in the body, often for breaking down molecules. FAAH and MAGL are key players in the ECS because they quickly break down endocannabinoids. FAAH breaks down anandamide, while MAGL breaks down 2-AG. These enzymes break down endocannabinoids very quickly, but are not effective at breaking down plant cannabinoids like THC. Figure 3: FAAH and MAGL are the key enzymes of the endocannabinoid system. Enzymes are molecules that accelerate chemical reactions in the body, often for breaking down molecules. FAAH and MAGL are key players in the ECS because they quickly break down endocannabinoids. FAAH breaks down anandamide, while MAGL breaks down 2-AG. These enzymes break down endocannabinoids very quickly, but are not effective at breaking down plant cannabinoids like THC. The three key components of the ECS can be found within almost every major system of the body. When something brings a cell out of its Goldilocks zone, these three pillars of the ECS are often called upon to bring things back, thus maintaining homeostasis. Because of its role in helping bring things back to their physiological Goldilocks zone, the ECS is often engaged only when and where it’s needed. Dr. Vincenzo Di Marzo, Research Director at the Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry in Italy, put it to us this way: “With the ‘pro-homeostatic action of the ECS’ we mean that this system of chemical signals gets temporarily activated following deviations from cellular homeostasis. When such deviations are non-physiological, the temporarily activated ECS attempts, in a space- and time-selective manner, to restore the previous physiological situation (homeostasis).” In other words, the ECS helps bring things back to the biological Goldilocks zone. Below we will consider examples of how the ECS helps maintain homeostasis in two areas: the firing of brain cells in the nervous system, and the inflammatory response of the immune system. Endocannabinoid Regulation of Brain Cell Firing Brain cells (neurons) communicate by sending electrochemical signals to each another. Each neuron must listen to its partners to decide whether it will fire off its own signal at any given moment. However, neurons don’t like to get too much input—there’s a Goldilocks zone. If they get overloaded by signals, it can be toxic. That’s where endocannabinoids come in. RELATED STORY How Does Cannabis Consumption Affect the Brain? Consider a simplified scenario with one neuron listening to two others. One of these two neurons might become overactive and send too many signals to the neuron that’s listening. When that happens, the neuron that’s listening will make endocannabinoids specifically where it’s connected to the overactive neuron. Those endocannabinoids will travel back to the “loud” neuron where they bind to CB1 receptors, transmitting a signal that instructs it to quiet down. This brings things back to the Goldilocks zone, maintaining homeostasis (Figure 4). Figure 4: Endocannabinoid signals regulate how active our brain cells are. Under normal circumstances (top-left), a given brain cell (neuron) will get just the right amount of input from its partners—not too much, not too little. However, some of its partners can become overactive, and send an excessive number of signals (top-right). The neuron that’s listening will detect this, and release endocannabinoids that tell the other neuron to quiet down (bottom). This kind of mechanism helps maintain homeostasis because it helps prevent neurons from sending out too many signals in a given period of time. As the example above illustrates, endocannabinoids travel backwards, which is why they’re known as retrograde signals. Most of the time, information flow between neurons is strictly in one direction, from “sender” neurons that release neurotransmitter signals to “receiver” neurons. Endocannabinoids allow receiver neurons to regulate how much input they’re getting, and they do this by sending retrograde signals (endocannabinoids) back to overactive sender neurons. But the brain isn’t the only organ that needs to maintain homeostasis. Every other system of the body, from the digestive to the immune system, needs to carefully regulate how its cells are functioning. Proper regulation is crucial for ensuring survival. Endocannabinoid Regulation of Inflammation Inflammation is a natural protective reaction the immune system has in response to infection or physical damage. The purpose of inflammation is to remove pathogens (germs) or damaged tissue. The inflamed area is produced by fluid and immune cells moving into the area to do the dirty work and return things to their Goldilocks zone. It’s important that inflammation be limited to the location of damage and doesn’t persist longer than needed, which can cause harm. Chronic inflammation and auto-immune diseases are examples of the immune system getting activated inappropriately. When that happens, the inflammatory response lasts too long (which results in chronic inflammation) or gets directed toward healthy cells (which is known as auto-immunity). RELATED STORY Cannabis and Arthritis In general, endocannabinoids seem to suppress or limit the immune system’s inflammatory signals. Professor Prakash Nagarkatti, Vice President for Research at the University of South Carolina whose laboratory studies endocannabinoid regulation of immune responses, told us how tweaking the ECS might be a good way to treat inflammatory diseases. “Most of our research demonstrates that endocannabinoids are produced upon activation of immune cells and may help regulate the immune response by acting as anti-inflammatory agents,” he explained. “Thus, interventions that manipulate the metabolism or production of endocannabinoids may serve as a novel treatment modality against a wide range of inflammatory disease.” Consider a normal immune response triggered by a bacterial infection. First, immune cells detect the presence of bacteria and release pro-inflammatory molecules that tell other immune cells to come and join the fight. Endocannabinoids get released as well (Figure 4), which also signal to other immune cells for assistance and likely help limit the inflammatory response so it isn’t excessive. By tightly regulating inflammation, the immune system can destroy germs or remove damaged tissue, and then stop. This prevents excessive inflammation, allowing cells, and thus the body, to return to the Goldilocks zone. Figure 4: Endocannabinoids help regulate inflammation. Under normal conditions (top-eft), cells of the immune system patrol the body, on alert for any intruders, such as bacteria that might arrive. During a bacterial infection (top-right), immune cells detect the presence of bacteria and the release a variety of molecules to help mount a defensive attack (bottom). These signals include pro-inflammatory molecules (small circles) that help recruit more immune cells to the site of infection. Endocannabinoids (small diamonds) also get release, and likely help regulate the magnitude and extent of this inflammatory response. Figure 4: Endocannabinoids help regulate inflammation. Under normal conditions (top-eft), cells of the immune system patrol the body on alert for any intruders, such as bacteria that might arrive. During a bacterial infection (top-right), immune cells detect the presence of bacteria and release a variety of molecules to help mount a defensive attack (bottom). These signals include pro-inflammatory molecules (small circles) that help recruit more immune cells to the site of infection. Endocannabinoids (small diamonds) also get released, and likely help regulate the magnitude and extent of this inflammatory response. How Do Plant Cannabinoids Like THC and CBD Interact with the Endocannabinoid System? The reason that plant cannabinoids have psychoactive and medicinal effects within the body is, in large part, because we have an endocannabinoid system (ECS) that they can interact with. For example, THC gets you high because it activates the CB1 receptor within the brain. Endocannabinoids like anandamide also activate CB1. So why aren’t we constantly high? A couple big reasons. First, THC binds to CB1 receptors more strongly than the body’s natural endocannabinoids. Second, the metabolic enzymes that quickly break down endocannabinoids like anandamide don’t work on THC, so THC lingers around for much longer. RELATED STORY CBD vs. THC: Why is CBD Not Psychoactive? It’s important to remember that molecules like cannabinoids and other neurotransmitters rarely interact with only one receptor type; they often interact with many. The plant-based cannabinoid CBD illustrates this nicely, as it interacts with numerous receptor types in the brain. So, while plant cannabinoids may activate the same cannabinoid receptors as endocannabinoids, they will likely interact with several other receptors and therefore have distinct effects. CBD is also interesting because it can affect overall levels of endocannabinoids in the brain, referred to as “endocannabinoid tone.” CBD inhibits the FAAH enzyme, which breaks down anandamide. Thus, CBD can increase anandamide levels by preventing FAAH from breaking it down. Inhibiting the FAAH enzyme has been shown to be a useful strategy for treating anxiety disorders, and some of CBD’s anti-anxiety properties may come from its ability to inhibit this enzyme and thereby increase endocannabinoid tone. Summary The endocannabinoid system (ECS), comprised of cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoid molecules, and their metabolic enzymes, is a crucial molecular system that the body uses to help maintain homeostasis. Because of its vital role in making sure that cells and systems remain in their physiological Goldilocks zone, the ECS is tightly regulated; it gets deployed exactly when and where it’s needed. However, this doesn’t mean that activating the ECS, through consumption of cannabis or by any other means, will always make things just right. Like any other complex biological system, the ECS can go awry. “If deviation from physiological homeostasis is prolonged, due to either external factors or chronic pathological conditions, the eCS can lose its time- and space-selective mode of action and start affecting inappropriate cells,” Dr. Di Marzo explained. “In these cases, the ECS, instead of being beneficial, may actually contribute to disease progression.” RELATED STORY What is Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome? It’s important to remember that activating the ECS, through cannabis consumption or by any other means, isn’t a cure-all. Like most of biology, it’s complicated. By understanding the biological Goldilocks principle (homeostasis), and how the ECS illustrates this at the cellular level, we can more deeply appreciate why we have an ECS to begin with, and how a variety of cannabis-based therapies might actually work. The presence and critical function of the ECS across many systems of the body, including the nervous and immune systems, explains why such a wide variety of ailments and disease states are responsive to cannabis-based interventions. leafly References Gunduz-cinar O, Hill MN, Mcewen BS, Holmes A. Amygdala FAAH and anandamide: mediating protection and recovery from stress. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2013;34(11):637-44. [PDF] Nagarkatti P, Pandey R, Rieder SA, Hegde VL, Nagarkatti M. Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs. Future Med Chem. 2009;1(7):1333-49. [PDF] Pertwee RG. The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153(2):199-215. [PDF] Wilson RI, Nicoll RA. Endocannabinoid signaling in the brain. Science. 2002;296(5568):678-82. [PDF] Zlebnik NE, Cheer JF. Beyond the CB1 Receptor: Is Cannabidiol the Answer for Disorders of Motivation? Annu Rev Neurosci. 2016;39:1-17. [PDF]
  21. 2 points
    That's pretty much what I do, veg with LED and flower with HPS. So what are you going to grow them in, I see you are starting in Rockwell cubes.
  22. 2 points
    As I know chronic pain can be treated with medical marijuana if it is prescribed by the licensed cannabis doctor. Earlier I was also suffering from chronic pain then one of my friends suggested me to get prescription from licensed cannabis doctors. As I didn't have time to visit clinic so I have asked her to check for the online doctor, then I found a website where doctors are licensed and highly experienced and available online, so I got prescription from them, and now I am living a healthy life without pain.
  23. 2 points
    have you looked into whether your mm licence will be found out at the border. i don't know if it's true ,but i heard anyone with a licence will be turned back.
  24. 2 points
    Any Fair / Fest needs some competitions... Getting in the zone will be a big part of it. Shooting hoops, Frisbee demos, Snooker, Scrabble, Chess.... Then they'll see what PotHeads can do.
  25. 2 points
    Thanks guys! I didn't use any nutrients on them. Only soil and water. Should i need to feed them? I want to grow organic, no chemicals or pesticides. With what and when should i feed them?
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